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BLENDED DELIVERY LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT MATERIAL . SIH30111 Certificate III in Hairdressing . SIHHHSC302A Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions. DEMONSTRATION UNIT DELIVERY STYLE - complet e unit contains 32 pages.

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  • SIH30111 Certificate III in Hairdressing

SIHHHSC302A Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

DEMONSTRATION UNIT DELIVERY STYLE - complete unit contains 32 pages

Initial Impact P/LPO Box 301Balnarring 3926ABN 37 006 210 920

Student name:..............................................................

Student ID:.................................................


SIHHHSC302A Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions
  • This unit describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required to assess skin test reactions, to recognise a range of normal and abnormal conditions of the hair and scalp, and to propose and perform treatments from the salon range. This unit contains employability skills.
  • Application of the unit.
  • This unit applies to hairdressers in salon environments, who consult with clients presenting for a range of hairdressing services. In this context they are required to recognise allergic reactions to skin tests, normal and abnormal hair or scalp conditions, and to propose treatment procedures within the framework of health regulations governing the industry in each state and territory. A person undertaking this role applies discretion and judgement and takes responsibility for outcomes of own work.
  • Competency field: Hairdressing
  • Performance criteria covered within this training programme
  • 1.1,1.2,1.3,1.4,2.1,2.2,3.1,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5,4.1,4.2,4.3

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Student assessment guide

There are two summative assessments for this unit.


You are to identify normal and abnormal hair and scalp conditions as you complete the client analysis card. You are to provide recommendations to the client on suitable treatments for their hair and scalp condition. You are to conduct a treatment service according to the condition of the hair and/or scalp. You are also required to conduct a skin patch test for allergic reactions prior to hair colouring and lightening services. You will be assessed on demonstration of your knowledge and communication, technical, numeracy and literacy skills used to perform the procedure correctly.


You are required to complete a knowledge questions test for this unit. The test covers the information in this learning material.


Formatives are activities located throughout the learning material which you need to complete and submit to your

trainer for comments. They allow you to continually demonstrate your ability to perform the required skills and

knowledge for this unit.


The summative assessment uses the performance criteria, range statement, critical evidence and employability skills

as the checklist for demonstration of the required skills and knowledge. Your trainer will deem you either

competent or not yet competent based on your performance in the summative.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Health of hair and scalp

Working in the hair industry requires you to care about your client’s hair and scalp and to advise them on the correct products to maintain their hair and scalp in good condition.

Client consultation.

You need to ask your client questions to gain information that will help you assess the condition of their hair.

Questions such as;

When was your last hair service?

What hair products do you use at home?

How often do you shampoo and condition your hair?

Normal hair and scalp.

This hair type appears shiny and healthy without being oily or dry. It is easy to manage and looks good. The scalp is also not oily or day.

Oily hair and scalp.

Oily hair and scalp is due to overactive sebaceous glands. The hair and scalp looks and feels greasy. If the hair is not washed regularly a slight odour will arise from the scalp.

Dry hair and scalp.

Dry hair does not contain enough moisture so it has no shine and feels dry. A dry scalp will sometimes be itchy or have dandruff present.

Physical damage.

This may be caused by exposure to sun, wind and salt water or it could be the result of continual use of thermal equipment such as hair dyers, tongs or straightening irons.

Chemical damage.

This is caused by frequent chemical treatments such as perming, bleaching and colouring.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

The development of skin disorders
  • Germs.
  • Germs are living organisms which can cause disease.
  • There are three types of germs.
  • Bacteria.
  • Virus.
  • Fungi.
  • Bacteria.
  • These are minute, one-celled vegetable micro-organisms found almost everywhere, especially in dirt, dust, rubbish and diseased tissue. Bacteria exists on the skin and in water. It is only visible by a microscope, with up to 1500 bacteria fitting across a pin head. They vary greatly in size and shape and can reproduce at a rate of billions per day. Bacteria is classed as a parasite as it lives off another living host.
  • Bacteria growth and reproduction.
  • Bacteria generally consists of an outer cell wall and internal protoplasm. It has two distinct phases in its life cycle.
  • The active or vegetative stage.
  • The inactive or spore forming stage.
  • Bacteria grow and reproduce during the active stage and multiply best in warm, dark, damp and dirty places. A bacteria cell can grow to its limit in size in approximately 20-30 minutes. It then divides into halves, forming two daughter cells. From one bacterium 16 million germs can develop in half a day. When growing conditions change, bacteria can either die or become inactive.
  • Cell division of bacteria is called binary fission.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Inactive or spore forming bacteria
  • Bacteria, when it is in its inactive stage, form spores which have a tough outer covering able to withstand periods of dryness. They can be blown around in dust and are not harmed by disinfectants, heat or cold. Bacteria is classified as either harmful (pathogenic) or harmless (non-pathogenic).
  • Pathogenic bacteria.
  • This type of bacteria produces disease. They live as parasites on the blood or tissue of humans or animals. They are carried in the blood of the human or animal and they multiply and release toxins (poisons) which are responsible for the signs and symptoms of disease. The amount of poisons they produce is seen in the degree of illness that the person or animal suffers.
  • Pathogenic bacteria enters the body through;
  • A break in the skin, being a cut or abrasion.
  • The mouth through eating or drinking.
  • The nose through breathing.
  • The eyes or ears through dirt.
  • The body fights infection through;
  • Unbroken skin.
  • Body secretions such as perspiration and digestive juices.
  • White blood cells in the blood which destroy bacteria.
  • Anti-toxins which counteract the toxins produced by the bacteria.
  • Pathogenic bacteria may be classified as;
  • Cocci – round shaped organisms appearing individually or in groups.
  • Bacilli – rod shaped organisms in short, thin or thick structures.
  • Spirillae – curved or spiral shaped single cell organisms.

Bacilli bacteria

Cocci bacteria

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Infection transmission

Infectious diseases can be spread in a variety of ways. This is referred to as transmission routes which are spread through droplet transmission and skin contact. Some infections can be spread directly by skin-to-skin contact or indirectly by contact with contaminated surfaces like clothing. Diseases with respiratory tract symptoms (runny nose, cough, sore throat) are often spread by droplets containing viruses or bacteria or by surfaces contaminated with nose and throat discharges. Droplets are generated during coughing, sneezing or talking. These “large” droplets travel less than three feet before falling to the ground and do not remain suspended in the air. Before falling to the ground, droplets may be deposited on the mucous membranes of the eye, nose, or mouth of another person within three feet, resulting in disease transmission.


There are a great many specific bacteria that are categorized as cocci. Most of the cocci are very small single cells. Cocci team up with others of the same species to form colonies and groups. These groups can take on larger shapes. Some of the more common bacterial infections are caused by cocci bacteria.

The Neisseria bacteria are cocci that are often found in pairs. This grouping makes them diplococci, meaning "two cocci". The Neisseria genus includes the bacteria that cause gonorrhea and meningitis.

The Streptococci are common bacteria that organise into chains. There are many different sub-groups of the streptococci. Depending on the specific species, the streptococci can cause disease ranging from strep throat to rheumatic fever. They can also cause pneumonia, meningitis and scarlet fever.

The last significant group of cocci are the staphylococci. These are commonly found in clusters,

often referred to as "grape-like" in appearance. There are literally dozens of different species

in the staphylococci family, many of which are harmful to people. Staph infections are

commonly seen in food poisoning.

Bacteria virus

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Non-pathogenic bacteria
  • This type of bacteria is harmless and can be found on human skin and hair. It is created from nutrients secreted from the sweat and oil glands in the skin. The use of strong soaps and detergents can break down the non-pathogenic bacterial protection on the skin allowing harmful bacteria (pathogenic) to start infections.
  • Non-pathogenic bacteria is beneficial as;
  • They cause decay of dead matter, increasing the supply of nitrogen to soil and improving its quality. This is seen in compost of vegetable waste.
  • They are used in the production of food such as cheese and the fermentation of wine and beer.
  • They show distinct forms and shapes which aid in their identification.

Structure of bacteria

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Infections and disease
  • Viruses.
  • Viruses are a lot smaller than bacteria. They are large groups of disease
  • producing plant like organisms. They are usually invisible.
  • They are responsible for;
  • Cold sores (herpes simplex).
  • Chicken-pox.
  • Measles.
  • Warts.
  • Influenza.
  • Common cold.
  • Mumps.
  • AIDS.
  • Hepatitis A + B.
  • Fungal infections.
  • The majority of fungi are non-pathogenic. Fungal skin diseases often occur in tropical climates where the weather is warm and moist. Fungi may spread from one part of the body to another and may originate from an infected dog or cat. They can also be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly in public places. This could be swimming pools, public showers or hairdressing salons. They are a vegetable parasite.

Cold sore

Warts are small, usually painless growths on the skin

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Sarcoptesscabiei – Scabies

Scabies is a common disease of the skin caused by a crab-shaped mite. It is not spread by animals. The first sign of scabies is an intense itching felt shortly after getting into a warm bed, during a hot shower or when the body gets warm.

You catch scabies by being in very close contact with an infected person. Occasionally they can be caught from soiled sheets freshly contaminated by infected persons.

The adult female burrows into the skin causing irritation usually around the finger webs, anterior surfaces of writs and elbows, waist-line and thighs. The external genitalia may be infected in men and in women, the skin around the nipples, the abdomen and the lower portion of the buttocks may be affected.

Scabies rarely affects the scalp although when conducting a manicure service the condition may be noticed. Follow the same principles of disinfection used for head lice.

The first signs are slightly elevated, small, itchy red spots on the skin near the tiny openings of the burrow made by the female. These burrows are very difficult to see. Under a magnifying glass, the whitish oval females may be seen beneath the skin surface at the blind end of the burrow. Continual scratching of the skin can lead to infection. Medical advice for treatment must be sought.

Scabies mite

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


You are required to conduct an allergy patch test. Write down the steps you took to conduct the procedure and the results. Submit your written steps to your facilitator.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Occupation Health and Safety requirements
  • Occupational Health and Safety guidelines. 
  • The following is a list of safety precautions that you must adhere to before and during a salon service.
  • Closed shoes must be worn.
  • Follow M.S.D.S recommendations.
  • Follow product manufacturers’ instructions.
  • Check the scalp for abrasions. Do not proceed with the service if there are any open cuts or irritations.
  • Check for infectious diseases.
  • Check for non contagious conditions.
  • Follow infection control guidelines.
  • Protect the client’s clothing.
  • Preventing the spread of disease.
  • Wear disposable gloves.
  • Wash equipment in warm, clear water and detergent. Rinse detergent away with running water.
  • Adhere to the disinfecting method for equipment that is part of salon policy.
  • Dispose of any contaminated waste in an identified container that can be sealed.
  • Wash your hands after you remove the gloves in case the gloves may have torn during the service and infection may have entered.
  • Always place a sealed dressing on any cuts or abrasions on your hands.
  • Wash your hands after every client. Always keep your fingernails clean.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


Alopecia is the technical term for baldness or hair loss. The loss of hair may be complete, partial, temporary or permanent. Alopecia is not contagious.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Treating hair and scalp conditions

Protein treatments.

Protein loss occurs when chemicals are used on the hair. Because loss of protein weakens the structure of the hair the replacement of protein becomes the predominant factor when selecting hair treatments. Protein will help to strengthen the hair shaft by filling in the gaps left by the chemical change.

A protein filler or porosity equaliser is often used on the hair prior to a chemical service. This is not rinsed out but left in the hair. The hair may be given a more intensive treatment by sectioning into cobweb partings and applying the product to the whole head or only the affected areas. Always follow manufacturers’ instructions when applying and removing their products. There are many product brands available for protein treatments.

Moisture treatments.

Water molecules from the atmosphere move in and out of the hair shaft as the humidity in the air changes. Moisture in hair makes the hair more manageable. Hair lacking in moisture will appear brittle, fly-away and may have split ends due to physical damage. Chemical treatments also removes moisture content. Natural dryness of the hair can be caused by internal factors.

Usually a moisture treatment is applied to the whole head, using cobweb partings for a thorough application. It is important to rinse thoroughly, removing all traces of product from the hair to avoid affecting other services. Always follow manufacturer’s instructions when applying and removing their products. There are many product brands available for moisture treatments.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Applying conditioning treatments
  • A thorough hair and scalp analysis is required before any treatment is commenced on the client.
  • Treatments come in the form of;
  • Protein reconstructants.
  • Lanolin, cholesterol or lecithin based products.
  • Alcohol based products - they can increase the blood flow through the small scalp blood vessels.
  • Zinc based products – used in medicated products to inhibit dandruff.
  • Coal tar based products – used to relieve psoriasis.
  • Tonic or pre-shampoo preparations are usually formulated for the scalp. They are rubbed into the hair to increase blood circulation and stimulates the muscles and glands of the scalp. The are used instead of treatments creams when the scalp requires stimulation or the hair is oily.
  • Creams applied after shampooing are beneficial to the hair and scalp. They are used when the hair and scalp are dry. They can be applied with a tint brush, starting at the crown and taking small sections in a cobweb sectioning pattern. Treatment creams re-introduce moisture to the hair and scalp making the hair more supple and easy to manage.
  • A pre shampoo treatment is usually related to scalp problems such as oily hair, hair loss and dandruff. After shampoo treatments are usually applied when the hair and scalp require moisture.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Scalp massage
  • Most people love scalp massages. How good you are at giving scalp massages can reflect on the level of customer service provided by the salon operator. A massage promotes healthy hair and scalp and can assist in the disorders of dandruff and hair loss.
  • Massage involves the manipulation of the scalp by rubbing, pinching, kneading and stroking with the hands and fingers.
  • Scalp massage should not be given before a perm, tint, straightening or bleaching service.
  • Massage benefits.
  • Circulatory system. Massage stimulates the blood supply to the hair papilla and the hair follicle. It provides extra oxygen, glucose and amino acids for cell growth.
  • Lymphatic system. The lymphatic system deals with lymph. Its main function is to guard the body against harmful germs and to keep the immune system functioning at a high level. Massage stimulates the conveying of nourishment and oxygen from the blood to the cells and removes their waste products to the blood.
  • Sebaceous glands. Massage causes the sebaceous gland to secrete more sebum. These natural oils benefit a dry scalp.
  • Nervous system. Massage stimulates sensory receptors in the dermis sending soothing messages to decrease tension.
  • Muscles. Massage will relax and tone the muscles of the neck and scalp and relieve tension.
  • Contraindications to massage.
  • Client has an infectious condition.
  • Broken skin.
  • An inflamed scalp.
  • Sunburn.
  • A circulatory disorder.
  • Very oily hair and scalp.
  • Brushing the hair before a scalp massage;
  • Stimulates blood circulation.
  • Distributes sebum from the surface of the scalp along the hair shaft.
  • Removes dead skin cells, dust and dirt from the scalp.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Waste management practices.
  • Ensure that you follow salon procedures for the safe disposal of all waste materials used in the treatment.
  • Follow salon policies on efficient use of energy, water and products.
  • Ensure that you follow salon policies on waste minimisation and recycling is conducted to reduce impact on the environment.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions

Home hair care
  • Each salon provides a range of take home products. Knowledge of these products is essential so that you can recommend home hair care products for your client. You should be offering take-home products every time you are providing services to clients. The basics are shampoos and conditioners. Maybe your client could use a home treatment product in-between visits to the salon.
  • Explain the benefits of home hair care products so that your client can maintain their hair condition at home.
  • Explain to the client that excessive heat from tongs and straightening irons can cause damage to the hair.
  • Explain the affects of exposure to the sun and suggest options to protect the hair from the sun. Suggest your client wears a hat while out in the sun.
  • Suggest the appropriate styling products which may assist to protect the hair.


You are to practice the procedures for hair and scalp treatments. You are to complete the client analysis card each time you do a procedure.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


This completes the learning material for this unit.

Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions


Identify and treat hair and scalp conditions