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Louis XIV. LOUIS XIV "THE SUN KING". Cultural. Cultural. Louis’ efforts to centralize power in France inevitably led to conflict with the Catholic Church. The Church insisted that it be supreme over the monarchy. In 1682, Louis answered by stripping the papacy of all its power in France.

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slide2

LOUIS XIV

"THE SUN KING"

cultural1
Cultural
  • Louis’ efforts to centralize power in France inevitably led to conflict with the Catholic Church.
  • The Church insisted that it be supreme over the monarchy.
  • In 1682, Louis answered by stripping the papacy of all its power in France.
  • He eventually annulled the laws but had made his point: the Church would never again issue Church laws dealing with French social, political or financial issues.
  • Louis committed to make religious reforms by revoking the Edict of Nantes removing religious freedom in France.
  • This decision was not made out of religious intolerance but to unite the Church and state under the king’s leadership.
cultural catholic church continued
Cultural: Catholic Church Continued
  • He did not want to be fully submissive to the pope but did not want full separation for he thought that it was “an advantage that the Roman Curia should be favorable to him rather than unfavorable.”
  • Louis wanted religious unity in his kingdom so he looked unfavorably upon the Jansenists, Quietists, and Protestants.
cultural continued
Cultural Continued
  • He believed in Gallicanism—a belief that the monarchy had certain inalienable rights over the Catholic Church
  • The Concordat of Francis I placed a large number of benefices at Louis’ XIV disposal.
  • In the 1670’s, he instituted the right for French kings to be able to appoint the lower clergymen and to collect the “revenues from a diocese [a district of the church run by the bishop] when it was vacant”
  • He erred in his readiness to dispense bishops from their dioceses.
  • This is actually

How Louis XIV’s

Crown looked like!

cultural characteristics continued
Cultural Characteristics Continued
  • The Catholic Church orchestrated the government’s reconquest of domestic control.
  • They monitored printing, crippling the emerging press.
  • The French language itself became an object of government concern through the newly created AcademieFrancaise
pair share
Pair-Share:
  • On your Left Side of the Notes, you and your partner are to evaluate the success of Louis XIV’s belief in “one king, one country, and one faith.”
cultural arts
Cultural: Arts
  • To celebrate the glories of his reign, Louis became a patron of the arts and letters
  • Both he and Colbert shared the idea of glorifying the monarch and the monarchy through arts – again, the result of which Louis was known as “The Sun King”---PROPAGANDA
  • His taste was not always good, and he seemed to discourage individuality, but his palaces were decorated in a magnificent manner, with paintings celebrating the victories of Alexander, Caesar, and Louis
  • The finest example of Louis’s desire for magnificence is the Palace of Versailles
  • Louis himself became the most admired and emulated monarch in Europe
  • French culture spread everywhere
cultural2
Cultural
  • He opened the first school of ballet.
  • He purchased what's known today as the Hope Diamond. (Now in the Smithsonian. Uncut it was originally the size of a fist!)
  • 1759-Commissioned botanist Jussieu to create a botanical garden on the Trianon grounds
  • Was passionate about botany and undertook a project to inventory all known plant species
cultural3
Cultural
  • Collected clocks, barometers, microscopes, and telescopes
  • Helped produce one of the first maps of France
cultural4
Cultural
  • Enjoyed theatre.
  • His influences on the theatre are still present today.
  • -Deep box stage.
  • -Audience sits in front.
cultural5
-A curtain was used.

-Wing space utilized.

-Elaborate scenery.

-Mechanical devices were used.

-Females performed.

Cultural
cultural arts cont
Cultural: Arts Cont.
  • The Paris Observatory 1667
  • Academies of Architecture (1671), Music (1672)
  • Academie Française (1671)
cultural arts louvre
Cultural: Arts - Louvre

Perhaps the second most remarkable building constructed in the time period was the Louvre, completed by Claude Perrault

pair share1
Pair-Share:
  • On your Left Side, you and your partner are to decide of all the Cultural Changes made by Louis XIV, which are your TOP THREE and explain why.
cultural arts as propaganda
Cultural: Arts as Propaganda
  • The French Academy created a strict format for instruction with Colbert at the top.
  • For the visual arts, the assumption all underlying instruction was that the practice of art could be learned by application of certain precepts and that these precepts could be discovered by a process of rational analysis.
  • However, the style produced in the visual arts represented a compromise. Baroque art appealed to Louis XIV for its richness and grand scale.
  • But Baroque art had been developed primarily for religious needs and was thus considered unsuitable for court usage by Colbert and Lebrun.
  • They wanted a more secular, more rational style, one more suitable to the traditions of classicism.
  • In other words, Italian Baroque art was tempered by what the French called le bon gout (good taste).
  • The dictatorship of Colbert and Lebrun imposed this style all over France.
  • Among the many results of this dictatorship was the fact that Paris began to supersede Rome as the artistic capital of Europe.
cultural art as propaganda
Cultural: Art as Propaganda
  • Richelieu had been very powerful and influential; Mazarin continued that trend. He continued and expanded state patronage of the arts.
  • 1648: creation of the French Academy of Art with Charles Lebrun as Director
  • The intention of the academy was to train artists and control artistic style in France.
  • To this end, Mazarin and Lebrun imposed strict rules for admission to membership in the academy and for the form and content of the art produced in the academy.
cultural art as propaganda1
Cultural: Art as Propaganda
  • In the arts, Charles Lebrun became Colbert’s right arm--he was in essence a dictator of the arts.
  • In 1648, the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture had been established.
  • In 1663, Colbert and Lebrun reorganized it into a state art machine.
cultural art as propaganda2
Cultural: Art as Propaganda
  • In other words, Italian baroque art was tempered by what the French called le bon gout (good taste).
  • The dictatorship of Colbert and Lebrun imposed this style all over France.
  • Among the many results of this dictatorship was the fact that Paris began to supersede Rome as the artistic capital of Europe.
slide23

Far from being a pagan image, the royal sun was the image of the divine right of kingship, a concept accepted throughout the monarchies of Europe

the sun myth and the arts
The Sun Myth and the Arts
  • Louis XIV chose the sun as his emblem.
  • The sun was associated with Apollo, god of peace and arts, and was also the heavenly body which gave life to all things, regulating everything as it rose and set.
  • Like Apollo, the warrior-king Louis XIV brought peace[at least in the early days!], was a patron of the arts, and dispensed his bounty.
  • The regularity of his work habits and his ritual risings and retirings (levee and couchee) were another point of solar comparison.
  • Throughout Versailles, decoration combines images and attributes of Apollo: laurel, lyre, tripod with the king's portraits and emblems : the double LL, the royal crown, the sceptre and hand of justice.
  • The Apollo Salon is the main room of the Grand Apartment  because it was originally the monarch's state chamber.
  • The path of the sun is also traced in the layout of the gardens.  Louis is depicted at the Greek God, Apollo, in the painting below - - one of Louis's personal favorites.
slide25

The Sun MythLouis XIV chose the sun as his emblem.

  • The sun was associated with Apollo, god of peace and arts, and was also the heavenly body which gave life to all things, regulating everything as it rose and set.
  • Like Apollo, the warrior-king Louis XIV brought peace, was a patron of the arts, and dispensed his bounty.
  • The regularity of his work habits and his ritual risings and retirings (levee and couchee) were another point of solar comparison.
  • Throughout Versailles, decoration combines images and attributes of Apollo (laurel, lyre, tripod) with the king's portraits and emblems (the double LL, the royal crown, the sceptre and hand of justice).
  • The Apollo Salon is the main room of the Grand Apartment because it was originally the monarch's state chamber.
  • The path of the sun is also traced in the layout of the gardens.
slide27

Louis' fascination with the image of Apollo, god of the sun:

  • When Louis XIV was crowned his interest in dancing was strongly supported and encouraged by Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin, (formerly Mazarini), who assisted Louis XIV.
  • The young king made his ballet debut as a boy, but it was in 1653 as a teenager that he accomplished his most memorable feat as a dancer.
  • He performed a series of dances in Le Ballet de la Nuit and for his final piece he appeared as Apollo, god of the sun.
  • Wearing a fancy golden Roman-cut corselet and a kilt of golden rays he came to be known as the Sun King.
  • The sun's ray are worn on his head, around his neck and waist.
  • Apollo's face appears on his corselet. For the costume, Louis wore a special blonde wig.
  • Louis established the Académie Royale de Dance in 1661 in Paris
  • At the right, in another interpretation of the Apollo costume, Louis wears a skirt and long -waisted tunic with sun motif, ribbons and flowers, while carrying the symbol of Apollo, the lyre.
louis s ballet
Louis’s Ballet
  • Le' ballet entered into the picture as the prolific behavioral central ruse.
  • What an idea, lets act out in full public view what he wanted French society rules to become, through its class of Nobles first.
  • Then, and most important, how they are to behave in his royal court.
  • This was included in the choreography of the actual dance performance right their in the open public - while at the same time they, the very same nobles, having to pay the money for this performance  themselves. 
absolute monarch elements in the painting
Absolute Monarch Elements in the Painting
  • Robe
    • Royal purple
    • Robe lining of ermine
    • Robe design spills over into furniture
    • Fleurs de lis of gold (France, House of Bourbon)
  • Sword: military might, gold with jewels
  • Stance
    • Louis stands above viewer
    • Hand on scepter (signifies power and authority)
    • Other hand on hip
    • Head turned to acknowledge viewer (but not as equal)
  • Drapery: red expensive material
  • Column
    • Holds up an impressive building
    • Louis is the pillar of France
slide34

Continuing the Mythology of Apollo

  • Louis apparently loved paintings with mythological themes.
  • In 1670, painter Jean Nocret painted Louis and his family as Olympian gods.
  • Louis, wears a sun-gold gown open to the waist and crowned with a laurel wreath, symbol of Apollo.
  • The costume derives from a 1678 painting shows Louis dressed as a Roman emperor.
slide35
Louis XIV depicted as Alexander vs. Darius

The Battle of Issus 

333 BC

on your left side
On your Left Side:
  • After examining how Louis XIV used art as propaganda, compare and contrast what he did with one of the leaders you studied last year in Eastern World.
    • Mao
    • Specific Chinese Dynasty
    • Etc…
fashions serve a dual purpose
Fashions Serve a Dual Purpose
  • Then in the twist and turn of his own and very nimble genius came the even more brilliant additional idea - behind the pomp and circumstance contained in his vision.
  • He was to create, and to further inspire very, very, very expensive fashion styles for the French nobility.  
  • Selected coutures were invited to his Parisian court carrying the ordered most expensive fabrics and accessories they had, and he showed them how to modify their designs and told of he would help them make a lot of money at the same time. 
  • He knew this meant that lots of money was going to be spent.  The central theme of this promotion is ....
fashion serves a dual purpose
Fashion Serves a Dual Purpose
  • We're talking about cost, in today’s terms, for male court fashions at around $ 5,000.00, and female $ 15,000.00 and the jewelry was going as high as $ 500,000.00 - all being supplied and crafted by the emerging middle class of Paris itself. 
  • Then as the opening of The Sun King Ballet staring as the first " historic " male principal dancer King Louis XIV himself, tights and all, the ruse, or resulting behavior modification was sprung upon the French nobles....
pair share2
Pair-Share
  • On your Left Side, compare and contrast how fashion functioned and defined social class under Louis XIV to how fashion relates to social class and status today.
how does this relate to absolute monarchy
How does this relate to Absolute Monarchy?

“Nothing marks the greatness of princes better than the buildings that compel the people to look on them with awe, and all posterity judges them by the superb palaces they have built during their lifetime”

-- Jean-Baptiste Colbert

slide46

The palace situated between the village of Versailles and the park with grand avenues radiating from the Court of Honor

The principal approach connected with the Champs Elysees in Paris.

The garden in detail reflects the geometry of the plan at the urban and regional scale.

cultural arts versailles
Cultural: Arts - Versailles
  • It was originally the site of the log cabin that his father used to stay at while on hunting trips
  • Versailles was so large that it took 35 000 people more than three decades to build it
  • In 1661, Louis had spent $100 million to build the palace
  • Interior furnished with mosaics, painting, and mirrors
  • Palace surrounded by acres of gardens, lakes, and fountains
  • Cost was staggering, but Louis pushed for completion
pair share3
Pair-Share:
  • Ms. Barben is going to share a primary source account about Louis’s use of art and Versailles.
  • On your Left Side, what is Jean Domat saying about Louis XIV?
versailles

“Among the rights that the laws give the sovereign should be included [the right] to display all the signs of grandeur and majesty necessary to make manifest the authority and dignity of such wide-ranging and lofty power, and to impress veneration for it upon the minds of all subjects. For although they should see in it the power of God Who has established it and should revere it apart from any visible signs of grandeur, nevertheless since God accompanies His own power with visible splendor on earth and in the heavens as in a throne and a palace...”

Versailles

“He permits that the power He shares with sovereigns be proportionately enhanced by them in ways suitable for arousing respect in the people. This can only be done by the splendor that radiates from the magnificence of their palaces and the other visible signs of grandeur that surround them, and whose use He Himself has given to the princes who have ruled according to His spirit.” – Jean Domat, Jurist

Tour Versailles

slide50

Louis XIV Loved to Spend Money!!!

The Chapel at Versailles

The Hall of Mirrors

The King’s Bedroom

The Queen’s Bedroom

slide53
The construction however was not easy.
  • The marshes bred disease and of the estimated 35,000 workers, hundreds died every day.
palace at versailles
Palace at Versailles
  • Cost over $2 billion in modern dollars
  • 36000 laborers
  • 6000 horses
  • 15000 acres of gardens, lawns and woods
  • 1400 fountains
  • Palace itself was 500 yards long
  • Small royal city
slide55
The cost of Versailles will never be known due to the fact that Louis destroyed all the receipts.
  • It is estimated to have cost $1,500,000,000 to build and maintain.
louis in the gardens
Louis in the Gardens
  • Louis would stroll through the gardens with his court nobles.
  • The common people could visit the gardens and see their glorious king.
slide57

Versailles Statistics

  • 2,000 acres of grounds
  • 12 miles of roads
  • 27 miles of trellises
  • 200,000 trees
  • 210,000 flowers planted every year
  • 80 miles of rows of trees
  • 55 acres surface area of the Grand Canal
  • 12 miles of enclosing walls
  • 50 fountains and 620 fountain nozzles
  • 21 miles of water conduits
  • 3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed
  • 26 acres of roof
  • 51,210 square meters of floors
  • 2,153 windows
  • 700 rooms
  • 67 staircases
  • 6,000 paintings
  • 1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings
  • 2,100 sculptures
  • 5,000 items of furniture and objects d'art
  • 150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden
slide58

800 hectares (2,000 acres) of grounds

20 kilometres (12 miles) of roads

46 kilometres (27 miles) of trellises

200,000 trees

210,000 flowers planted every year

132 kilometres (80 miles) of rows of trees

23 hectares (55 acres): surface area of the Grand Canal

5.57 kilometres (3.3 miles): perimeter of the Grand Canal

slide59

20 kilometres (12 miles) of enclosing walls

50 fountains

620 fountain nozzles

35 kilometres (21 miles) of water conduits

3,600 cubic meters per hour: water consumed during Full Play of Fountains

11 hectares (26 acres) of roof

51,210 square meters of floors

slide60

2,153 windows

700 rooms

67 staircases

6,000 paintings

1,500 drawings and 15,000 engravings

2,100 sculptures

5,000 items of furniture and objets d'art

150 varieties of apple and peach trees in the Vegetable Garden

slide63
Louis Le Vau opened up the interior court to create the expansive entrance cour d’honneur, later copied all over Europe
slide64

The Grand Trianon

The Petit Trianon

versailles and its gardens
Versailles and its Gardens
  • The palace was landscaped into a vast park, that included great fountains, lakes, ponds, and dozens of marble statues.
  • In the center of the grounds, workers built the Grand Canal, an artificial lake which extended for a length of one mile.
  • Trees were planted by the hundreds, and from everywhere about the grounds you could see green lawn carpets, waterfalls, and trees lining the walkways in uniform rows.
  • The park at Versailles was composed of three main parts, the garden, the small park, and the big park.
  • The marble statue represented the Greek athlete Milo, an Olympic champion.
construction
Construction
  • Drained swamps & moved forests to create 250 acres of formal gardens
  • Entire estate = 2,000 acres
  • 30,000 laborers
  • Charles Lebrun = main decorater
versailles and its gardens1
Versailles and its Gardens
  • Flowerbeds were planted everywhere and wooden boxes were filled with flowering plants, which could be moved indoors for special occasions.
  • Many of the plants had their plants replaced as many as 15 times a year so that Versailles was always bright with flowers.
  • f
slide72

La Chateau de Versailles

Built under the direction of achitect, Louis le Vau, beginning in 1668.

other kings tried to build their own versailles
Other Kings Tried To Build Their Own Versailles
  • Peter the Great: Built the Peterhof Palace after visiting Versailles and the Winter Palace both in the new capital of St. Petersburg
  • Catherine the Great: Built the Hermitage in St. Petersburg
  • Frederick the Great: Build the Sans Souci Palace in 1744 in Potsdam outside Berlin
  • Maria Theresa: Built Schoenbrunn in Vienna from 1706-1711
slide85

Versailles

  • Schoenbrunn
slide86

Schoenbrunn

  • Versailles
slide88

Spectacle at Versailles

Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly power

  • Louis XIV’s style, ceremony emphasized political strength
  • Practically every moment of king’s day required rituals by bowing courtiers
    • Eating, dressing, walking in garden, all required a ritual
    • Louis always knew who had given what he considered proper attention
social use versailles to control the nobles
Social: Use Versailles To Control The Nobles
  • The court consisted of 20,000 persons that included 9,000 soldiers, 5,000 servants, 1,000 great lords and members of the nobility, 1,000 lesser aristocrats (who visited the court on a daily basis) and 4-5,000 bureaucrats to manage the official business.
  • The court was further supported by 2,500 horses, 200 coaches, and 5,000 hunting dogs.
  • The great lords and members of the nobility were required to live at Versailles--in the palace--so that the king could keep track of them.
  • They were required to wear entirely new clothing (down to their linens) for the king’s fetes and other important social occasions.
  • They could beg permission to return to their lands periodically in order to regroup financially!
slide90

Social:

  • Louis XIV proclaimed Versailles to be the seat of the government on May 6, 1682.
  • In effect, the entire bureaucracy moved from Paris to the suburban villa of the king.
  • The court consisted of 20,000 persons that included 9,000 soldiers, 5,000 servants, 1,000 great lords and members of the nobility, 1,000 lesser aristocrats (who visited the court on a daily basis) and 4-5,000 bureaucrats to manage the official business.
  • The court was further supported by 2,500 horses, 200 coaches, and 5,000 hunting dogs.
  • The great lords and members of the nobility were required to live at Versailles--in the palace--so that the king could keep track of them.
  • They were required to wear entirely new clothing (down to their linens) for the king’s fetes and other important social occasions.
  • They could beg permission to return to their lands periodically in order to regroup financially!
purpose of palace of versailles
Purpose of Palace of Versailles
  • Power in center = government offices, homes of thousands of courtiers, their retinues, & attendant functionaries of the court lived in the Palace.
  • Strict court etiquette that Louis XIV established was epitomized in elaborate ceremonies & parties.
versailles continued
Versailles continued…
  • Louis used this palace as a means of controlling high level nobles.
  • Other European countries envied the Palace and it was the goal of every French noble to live there which Louis used a controlling tool.
  • Nobles would surrender power to him for pensions or invitations to live at the Palace.
louis controls the nobles
Louis Controls the Nobles
  • Louis was especially worried about controlling the nobility
  • He excluded (kept out) them from his councils
  • He had the nobles live with him at the palace
  • He had 100 nobles each day, waiting to help him dress in the morning
  • Having the nobles at the palace increases nobility in two ways:
    • Made them completely dependant on Louis
    • It took them away from their homes, making rebellion harder
    • It also increased the power of the intendants (govt. agents) who collected taxes & were like a police force
slide95

As a noble, your status was now shown by your proximity (closeness) to the king and your willingness to spend money to show off at the court

on your left side1
On your Left Side:
  • As Ms. Barben shares with you some of the rules of etiquette, write down the ones that interested, shocked, or surprised you the most and why?
  • Then write down any modern behaviors that we do today that 100 years from now may interest, shock, or surprise that generation and why.
court etiquette
Court Etiquette
  • People who wanted to speak to the king could not knock on his door.
  • Instead, using the left little finger, they had to gently scratch on the door, until they were granted permission to enter.
  • A lady never held hands or linked arms with a gentleman.
  • Besides being in bad taste, this practice would have been impossible because a womanユs hooped skirts were so wide.
  • Instead, she was to place her hand on top of the gentlemanユs bent arm as they strolled through the gardens and chambers of Versailles.
  • It is also mentioned that the ladies were only allowed to touch fingertips with the men.
  • Women and men were not allowed to cross their legs in public.
  • When a gentleman passed an acquaintance on the street, he was to raise his hat high off his head until the other person passed.
  • A gentleman was to do no work except writing letters, giving speeches, practicing fencing, or dancing.
  • For pleasure, he engaged in hawking, archery, indoor tennis, or hunting.
  • A gentleman would also take part in battle and would sometimes serve as a public officer, paying the soldiers.
slide98

Ladies’ clothing did not allow them to do much besides sit and walk.

  • However, they passed the time sewing, knitting, writing letters, painting, making their own lace, and creating their own cosmetics and perfumes.[4]
  • In addition, etiquette ordained the order of prominence at court, limited or extended access based on rank or favor, rigidly maintained complex customs of address, and even who could sit or stand under what circumstances in the royal presence or that of the great nobles.
social court life at versailles
Social: Court Life at Versailles
  • The palace had elegant royal apartments, sweeping staircases, mirrored halls, and lavish salons and dining rooms.
  • There were offices for government bureaucrats.
  • As many as 10,000 people lived at Versailles.
  • Louis insisted on the most elaborate court etiquette, and insisted that his nobles wait on him hand and foot – they even saw him while he was on the Great Porcelain Throne.
  • Louis had his nobles wait on him so they would not be involved in government service. The nobility was dependant on Louis for pensions, court posts, etc…
  • In exchange for ending the nobles power, they were exempt from taxation.
social court life at versailles1
Social: Court Life at Versailles
  • Court life was a mixture of parties, balls, dances, plays, puppet shows, concerts, hunting, and a variety of other things.
  • Louis created elaborate opportunities for the nobility to serve him.
  • It was considered an honor to be allowed to help the king rise in the morning, and go to bed at night.
  • During the rituals, noblemen helped wash and dress the king and prepare him for the day.
social court life
Social: Court Life
  • From this time forward, the king alone would be the one to reward merits, notable service and fidelity to his person or state.
  • The hereditary system which was the foundation of the court social structure from the highest to the humblest was now firmly under the control of the king.
  • Public offices, military posts, every position down to the most menial of jobs was inherited or bought only with the king’s consent.[6]
  • Louis XIV made himself the sole source of justice and equity in the kingdom, the rescuer of his subjects’ freedom.
  • By slow degrees he became an idol, so that “a look from him singled a man out, a word with him was an honour, a favour bestowed covered the recipient with glory.”[7]
social court life1
Social: Court Life
  • By multiplying the positions around him, Louis XIV excited constant jealousy between the different officeholders and the ranks of the aristocracy.
  • He also ensured that the energies that had once provoked civil wars would be spent in quarreling about the right to a stool, or the order of entrance into the royal bedroom.
social court life2
Social: Court Life
  • Wit and lively conversation became a necessity to fill the long, leisurely hours; for although the king worked long hours, most of the courtiers had nothing to do.
  • Indeed, it was at times strenuous to be a noble, “(to appear in) full dress, go to Flanders or further, dance, sit up, attend fêtes, eat, be merry and good company, go from place to place; appear neither to fear, nor to be inconvenienced by heat, wind, or dust; and all this precisely to the hour and day, without a minute’s grace.”[9]
  • In attending the king at court, the nobility surrendered not only its personal life but its political power as well.
social
Social
  • To be allowed to watch the king or help him dress or undress was a great privilege.
  • It was a high honor to sit on a stool in the king’s presence.
  • It was a promotion and the greatest honor to be able to sit on a chair in the king’s presence.
  • It is compulsory to bend the knee to a table laid out for the king’s meal and even to the royal chamber pot as it was carried out to be emptied.
social characteristics continued
Social Characteristics Continued
  • He essentially dissolved the nobility by making them a court nobility where they became regarded as mere ornaments – gave them no power, but much gold and entertainment
but real state power was given only to commoners who ruled in louis name
But real state power was given only to commoners who ruled in Louis’ name
  • Established bureaucracy
  • Staffed by “commoners” – men of merit who held power only through Louis
    • Educated merchants and intellectuals
    • Close ties between the state and the new capitalist class
social court life3
Social: Court Life
  • Louis XIV looked on himself as the owner of France, free to manage his kingdom as he chose, uncontrolled except by God Himself, Who would lead Louis to manage wisely.
  • Cardinal Mazarin, who died in 1661, supplied Louis XIV with the best advice:” give the nobility privileges but no power, exclude the aristocracy from your counsels, choose your ministers from among the bourgeoisie who will thus be in your debt and always be your own chief minister.”[5]
  • Pair-Share: Turn to your partner and on the Left Side, explain what Marazin meant by this? Did Louis XIV achieve this? Why or why not?
slide112

Social: Treatment of the Protestants

  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685
  • Took away civil rights for Calvinists
  • Destroyed Huguenot churches/schools
  • Exiled prominent Huguenots
    • Much of the economy went with them
    • Their wealth now supported enemies
    • Angered other Protestant nations
social huguenots edict of fontainebleau 1685 http en wikipedia org wiki edict of fontainebleau
Social-Huguenots-Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Fontainebleau
  • The Edict of Fontainebleau (October 1685) was issued by Louis XIV of France.
  • This legislation revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598) and ordered the destruction of Huguenot churches, as well as the closing of Protestant schools.
  • As a result, about 200,000 Protestants left France, seeking asylum in England, the United Provinces, and what is now Germany. (Spielvogel).
social treatment of the huguenots
Social: Treatment of the Huguenots
  • After 1661 Louis took a strict stance towards the Protestants and tried to limit the application of the Edict of Nantes.
  • After 1679 Protestants were barred from public office and the other liberal professions.

Police began to keep an eye on Protestant families. Soldiers were then quartered in Protestant residences.

  • Marillac applied cruel methods of “bringing Protestants to reason” which became known as the dragonnades.
  • Louis was angered by this at first and blamed Marillac, but resumed the dragonnades in 1684 at the instigation of Louvois.
  • Political cartoon
  • Dragonnades:
social treatment of the huguenots continued
Social: Treatment of the Huguenots Continued
  • On October 18, 1685 the Edict of Nantes was revoked in its entirety.
  • Protestant places of worship were demolished, Protestant schools were closed, pastors who refused to convert were exiled, and Protestant children were baptized by Catholic priests.
  • Protestants were forced to choose between conversion to Catholicism, persecution, or flight from the country – 400, 000 left, and France lost some of its most valuable workers which weakened the economy.
    • Lived by the motto “One king, one law, one faith.”
    • Felt that the presence of a minority religion “undermined his own political authority”
  • Several provinces were virtually depopulated.
  • In October 1685, Louis enforced mandatory conversions for Protestants to Catholicism
    • Thousands converted but many secretly remained faithful to Protestantism
social huguenots
Social: Huguenots
  • Some say it was 400,000; others say it was 200,000 Huguenots who fled France.
  • They settled in England, Holland, Prussia, and America.
  • Since they were middle class and the best craftsmen and tradesmen, they brought much to their new countries.
social treatment of the huguenots continued1
Social: Treatment of the Huguenots Continued
  • The Edict of Fontainebleau was the replacement document for the revoked Edict of Nantes
  • The Edict of Fontainebleau allowed for the destruction of Huguenot [French Protestants from the 16th and 17th centuries] Churches and the closing of their schools
    • An estimated 200,000 Huguenots fled from France and sought refuge in England, the United Provinces, and the German States
  • The exodus of the Huguenots increased a hatred of France in Protestant Countries
  • The Edict of Nantes:
louis xiv s legacy
Louis XIV’s Legacy
  • By the time of Louis’ death in 1715 France was a powerful nation-state.
  • The Catholic Church and the feudal nobles had surrendered most of their power to the monarchy.
  • France was seen as the military and cultural leader of Europe and the people of France had a strong nationalistic pride.
  • France also had developed a strong empire of colonies to use for resources and to sell its finished goods.
successes and failures of louis xiv
Louis greatly strengthened royal power.

The French army became the strongest in Europe.

France became the wealthiest state in Europe.

French culture, manners, and customs became the European standard.

The arts flourished in France.

Louis engaged in costly wars that had disastrous results.

Rival rulers joined forces to check French ambitions.

Louis persecuted the Huguenots, causing many to flee France. Their departure was a huge blow to the French economy.

2

Successes and Failures of Louis XIV

SUCCESSES

FAILURES

however not all was perfect in france
However, not all was perfect in France…
  • One problem still cast a shadow over all the accomplishments of Louis XIV’s absolute monarchy: debt.
  • The costs of maintaining a standing army, fighting wars, large pensions to nobles and the construction costs of the Palace of Versailles all but drained the French treasury.
  • In addition, increasing the tax burden on the poor, the largest segment of the population, would all lead to the toppling of the monarchy in the 18th century.
pair share read the letter to louis xiv and give examples from your notes that support this
Pair-Share: Read the Letter to Louis XIV and give examples from your notes that support this.
  • “Meanwhile your people…are dying of hunger. The cultivation of the earth is almost abandoned; the towns and the countryside are depopulated; all the industry languishes, and no longer supports the workers. All commerce is destroyed. You have consumed half the wealth and vitality of the nation to make and defend vain conquests abroad…All France is now but a vast hospital, desolate and without provisions.”

-Archbishop Francois de Fenelon, Educator

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But as time passed--- he was seen as a king who ground France into the dust, only to give it great glory.
end of louis xiv s reign
End of Louis XIV’s Reign
  • Louis lives long enough to see his second grandson made the King of Spain---Philip V.
  • He also sees the death of his elder son in 1711, and the death of his eldest grandson in 1712.
  • In 1715, Louis XIV dies and is succeeded by his 5 year old great-grandson Louis XV.
  • This sounds familiar. Would history repeat itself? We shall have to wait and see…
on your left side what has louis realized by the end of his reign
On your Left Side: What has Louis realized by the end of his reign?
  • “Soon you will be King of a great kingdom…Try to remain at peace with your neighbors. I loved war too much. Do not follow me in that or in overspending… Lighten your people’s burden as soon as possible, and do what I have had the misfortune not to do myself.”
  • ~ Louis XIV
a common fault of absolutist rulers
A common fault of absolutist rulers
  • “Do not follow the bad example which I have set you; I have often undertaken war too lightly and have sustained it for vanity. Do not imitate me, but be a peaceful prince, and may you apply yourself principally to the alleviation of the burdens of your subjects.”

-- Louis on his deathbed