Factors effects on Popcorns Student : Shakoor Muhammad Professor: Felipe Campelo - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Factors effects on Popcorns Student : Shakoor Muhammad Professor: Felipe Campelo

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  1. Federal UniversityOf Minas GeraisPost Graduate programe in ElectricalEngineering:Designs andAnalysisofExperiments FactorseffectsonPopcorns Student: Shakoor Muhammad Professor: Felipe Campelo

  2. Layout of the Presentation: 1. Introduction 2. Pre-experimental planning 3. Hypothesis Testing 4. Results and Discussion 5. Conclusion 6. References

  3. Introduction Popping Corn is corn (maize) that expands from the kernel and puffs up when heated. Its kernels have a hard moisture-sealed hull and a dense starchy interior. This allows pressure to build inside the kernel until explosive “pop” results. Popcorn has always been a crucial element of sustenance in my life and I've always wondered what effects certain factors have in the making of a good batch.

  4. Introduction Objective: To analyze factors (either alone, and their interactions) that have the effect in the preparation of popcorns.

  5. Pre-Experimental planning Two factors oil and salt, each run at two levels low and high.Justification: Provides visualization and perception of the behavior of the model.

  6. Pre-Experimental planning Factors and their Levels-Temperature : Constant -Oil: LIZA-Salt : Low level of salt (-)=3gm, High level of salt (+)=6gm-Oil: Low level of oil (-)=15gm and High level of oil (+)=25gm-Response Variable: Un-popped Corns -Constant amountofCorns(PINK)= 70 gm

  7. Pre-Experimental planning Materials: -Balance -Stopwatch -Stove -PopcornPot

  8. Pre-Experimental planning Constant Position oftheStove

  9. Pre-Experimental Planning -MethodofExperiment: -Putoil, saltandcorn in thepotandput it onthestove. -Shakedthecorns in thepotwiththehandle. -Remvedthepotfromthestove, whenthepoppingprocessstoped for 4 seconds. -Separatethepoppedandunpopedpopcorns. -Repeated it for 3 times for eachlevelsaltandoil.

  10. Pre-Experimental planning Hypothesis Testing: The effect model in my case is given by; Yijk= µ+Ƭi+βj+(Ƭβ)ij+ϵijk { i=1,2 j=1,2 k=1,2,3 Where µ is the overall mean effect, Ƭi is the effect of ithfacter level of oil, βjisthejthcolumnfactorofsalt, (Ƭβ)ijistheinteractionfactorofsaltandoilandϵijkistherandomerrorcomponent.

  11. Pre-Experimental planning -Testing Hypotheses : -Alpha = 0.05; -Ho: The effects of factors and their interactions = 0, for all levels; -H1: The effects of factors and their interactions ≠ 0, for some levels.

  12. Pre-Experimental planning Both lowlevelsstates (-,-):

  13. Pre-Experimental planning High andLowlevelstate (+,-):

  14. Pre-Experimental planning Lowand High Levelstate (-,+):

  15. Pre-Experimental planning Both High levelstates(+,+):

  16. ResultsandDiscussions: Overall data TableoftheExperiment:

  17. ResultsandDiscussions: ResultsTable StdOrder RunOrder CenterPt Blocks OIL SALT Results 2 1 1 1 1 -1 13 4 2 1 1 1 1 7 1 3 1 1 -1 -1 19 6 4 1 1 1 -1 12 3 5 1 1 -1 1 6 8 6 1 1 1 1 7 11 7 1 1 -1 1 10 10 8 1 1 1 -1 10 12 9 1 1 1 1 6 9 10 1 1 -1 -1 13 7 11 1 1 -1 1 8 5 12 1 1 -1 -1 11

  18. -Rejection of Ho;With the significance level alpha = 0.05, the factors salt and oil can be considered significant, as well as their interactions.

  19. ResultsandDiscussions: Fromthestudyof 2kfactorial designs experiments, It isclearthattheeffectofoilwiththecombinationofsalthave a greateffectonthepoppingprocess. The averageeffectofsaltisnegitive for thenumberofunpoppedcorns, which shows thatincreasingtheamountofsalt (alone) increasethenumberofunpoppedcorns.

  20. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults: -AnalysisofVariance for theExperiment Source DF SS MS F P OIL 1 12,000 12,0000 2,00 0,195 SALT 1 96,333 96,3333 16,06 0,004 Interaction 1 1,333 1,3333 0,22 0,650 Error8 48,000 6,0000 Total 11 157,667

  21. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults: -RegressionAnalysis: The regressionequationis Results = 10.2 – 1.00 O – 2.83 S Where O and S are codedvariables for saltandoilrespectively.

  22. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults:

  23. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults:

  24. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults:

  25. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults:

  26. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults -Planning allowed the advance knowledge of the characteristics of the experiment.-The instruments used were appropriate;-Type of test and choose the level of significance was adequate;-Info numeric and graphic as the basis for rejecting Ho.-Verification of the factors studied in the response variable.

  27. DiscussionsandAnalysisofResults

  28. CONCLUSION The effectofsaltisimportant in thepoppingprocess, one of the most useful qualities of salt is it’s heat absorption. Salt is a crystal that can absorb heat very effectively because of its particular physical and chemical properties. Salt also increase the heat capacity of other liquids.Thatswhy in some Asain countries for exampleIndia, pakistan, Bangladesh andSarilankathepopcorns are prepared in saltonly.

  29. CONCLUSION The placewhere it preparediscalledButt (spacialplace for popcons). As saltgotheatveryquickly, sowhen it gotsenoughheat, then it becameeasyto prepare allotofpopcornsin sharttime.

  30. References [1] D. C. Montgomery. Analysis and Design of Experiments. John Wiley & Sons, 5th ed. edition,2001.[2] D. C. Montgomery and G. C. Runger. Applied Statistics and Probability for Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, 3rd ed. edition, 2003.