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4.3 Triumph of Parliament in England. Chapter 4 Section 3. Dissenter: Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England Habeas corpus: principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

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Dissenter: Protestant whose views and opinions differed with those of the Church of England

  • Habeas corpus: principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime
  • Limited monarchy: government in which a constitution of legislative body limits the monarch’s powers
important people and terms

James I: first Stuart monarch, wanted absolute power, clashed with Parliament and dissolved it, created the King James version of the Bible

  • Charles I: Son of James I, imprisoned enemies without a trial, taxed heavily, forced to sign Petition of Right by Parliament, was defeated by Roundheads in 1647 and executed in 1649
  • Petition of Right: law that prohibited the king from increasing taxes without Parliament’s consent and from imprisoning people without just cause
  • Cavaliers: supporters of Charles I, wealthy nobles who fought for the king
  • Roundheads: supporters of Parliament, country gentry or manufacturers with short hair cuts who fought against the king
  • Oliver Cromwell: leader of the Roundheads and leader of the Commonwealth
  • Levellers: group fighting against the Commonwealth, believed poor men should have as much say in government as noble or rich men
  • English Bill of Rights: several acts passed by Parliament which ensured the superiority of Parliament and the traditional rights of English citizens, signed by William and Mary in 1689
Important People and Terms
setting the scene

Many people believed that Parliament was the highest power in the 1560s.

    • However, in 1603, James I, the monarch of England, took the throne, declaring himself more powerful than Parliament and often colliding it.
  • It was during the 1600s that history sees how and why Parliament asserted itself against the power of monarchs.
Setting the Scene
the tudors and parliament

The Tudor dynasty ruled England from 1485 to 1603 and kept a good relationship with Parliament.

    • Parliament legalized Henry VIII split from the Roman Catholic Church by approving the Act of Supremacy, which made the monarch the head of the Church of England.
    • Parliament also helped the king levy taxes.
    • Elizabeth I controlled Parliament and earned the name “Good Queen Bess” for her skill in handling Parliament.
The Tudors and Parliament
the road to ruling

Elizabeth I was born on September 17th, 1533 to King Henry VIII and his new wife, Anne Boleyn.

    • Before she was three years old, King Henry had her mother beheaded because she was unable to bear him any sons to inherit the throne.
    • Elizabeth had many stepmothers, the last one being Katherine Parr.
  • After her father’s death, Elizabeth went to live with Katherine but left her stepmother after an unknown incident with Thomas Seymour, Katherine’s husband after King Henry.
  • Later, after the death of Elizabeth’s younger brother Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, another heir to the throne, was named Queen.
    • However, more people supported Elizabeth’s stepsister Mary.
    • Mary imprisoned Lady Grey in the Tower of London and persecuted many Protestants during her rule, gaining the nickname of “Bloody Mary”.
      • The Protestants saw Elizabeth, who believed in the Protestant faith, as their savior, thus making her a threat to Mary.
      • Mary imprisoned her in the Tower for a few months until she felt that her sister was no longer a threat.
        • Elizabeth was then sent to live in Hatfield.
  • Upon Mary’s death in 1558, Elizabeth was named the new queen.
    • She was crowned Queen on January 15th, 1559.
The Road to Ruling
the early stuarts

The throne was passed from Elizabeth in 1603 to the Stuarts, who were not as skilled at dealing with Parliament.

    • The Stuarts also gained problems that Henry and Elizabeth had put off during their rule.
    • The “century of revolution” that followed pitted the Stuarts against Parliament.
The Early Stuarts
the royal challenge

James I, the first Stuart monarch, argued with Parliament, saying that he should have absolute power.

  • He also clashed with Parliament over money and foreign policy.
    • He wished for money to satisfy his lavish court and to wage wars.
    • When foreign policy was discussed, James dissolved Parliament.
  • James also became involved in numerous disputes with dissenters.
    • A group of dissenters called the Puritans sought to “purify” the church of Catholic practices.
    • They wanted simpler church services and a more democratic church.
      • James rejected their demands.
      • However, he did call for a new translation of the Bible.
        • The King James version appeared in 1611 and still has a lasting influence on English literature and language.
The Royal Challenge
parliament responds

Charles I inherited the throne in 1625.

    • He believed that he had absolute power.
      • His foes were imprisoned without trial and the citizens were squeezed for their money.
    • He was forced to summon Parliament in 1628 in order to raise taxes.
      • Parliament first made the king sign the Petition of Right.
        • It prohibited the king from raising taxes without Parliament’s permission or from imprisoning someone without a just cause.
Parliament Responds

Charles I

parliament responds cont d

After signing the petition, Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629.

    • He ignored the petition and ruled without Parliament for 11 years.
      • During this time, he acquired enemies, of which many were Puritans.
      • William Laud, the archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose Anglican rules of dismissing or imprisoning dissenters upon clergy.
      • The people thought he was trying to revive Catholic practices.
    • In 1637, Charles and Laud tried to push the Anglican prayer book on Scotland.
      • The Calvinist Scots revolted.
      • Charles had to summon Parliament in 1640 in order to get funds to suppress the Scots.
        • However, Parliament launched its own revolt upon meeting.
Parliament Responds Cont’d
the long parliament

The Parliament of 1640 was called the Long Parliament because it lasted on and off until 1653.

    • In an increasing struggle with the king, Parliament tried and executed his chief ministers, including Archbishop Laud.
      • They also declared that Parliament couldn’t be dissolved without its own consent and wanted to abolish bishops.
    • Charles fought back.
      • In 1642, he led forces to the House of Commons and arrested the most radical leaders.
      • The rest of Parliament escaped and raised their own army.
        • The clash was then moved to a battlefield.
The Long Parliament
the english civil war

From 1642 to 1649, there was a civil war.

    • The English Civil War was a major challenge to absolutism.
      • The revolution forces won.
The English Civil War
cavaliers and roundheads

The supporters of Charles 1, or Cavaliers, were wealthy nobles, with plumed hats and long hair.

    • They were well-trained in dueling and warfare.
    • However, the Roundheads were tough fighters.
      • They were the forces of Parliament and were made up of country men, manufacturers, and Puritan clergy.
        • Because their hair was cut close to their heads, they earned the nickname “Roundhead”.
      • Their leader, Oliver Cromwell, was a skillful general who organized the “New Model Army” for Parliament into a better disciplined force.
        • Inspired by Puritans, his army defeated the Cavaliers after several battles.
        • In 1647, Charles I was defeated by the Roundhead troops.
Cavaliers and Roundheads
execution of a king

Parliament set up a court to try the king.

    • They condemned him to death, calling him “a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy”.
  • In January of 1649, Charles I was to be executed.
    • He showed no sign of fear and even asked to give the signal for the executioner.
    • After his signal, he was beheaded.
  • The king’s execution shocked most of Europe.
    • It was the first time a king had been tried and killed by his own people.
      • This execution was a clear sign from Parliament that no ruler could hold absolute power and ignore the rule of law.
Execution of a King
the commonwealth

The House of Commons destroyed the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the official Church of England after Charles I was killed.

    • It declared England a republic under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
      • This republic became known as the Commonwealth.
The Commonwealth
challenges to the commonwealth

Many threats arose with the new government.

    • Supporters of Charles II, Charles I’s uncrowned heir, attacked England.
    • Cromwell led forces to stop the uprising and was harsh with the Irish Catholic people.
      • In 1652, Parliament exiled most Catholics to a barren land west of Ireland through a law.
    • The Levellers, another group that opposed the Commonwealth, wanted poor men to have a say in the government, as well as women.
      • The gentry of Parliament hated this idea and quickly stopped them with the help of Cromwell.
  • As the Commonwealth faced more challenges, Cromwell named himself Lord Protector in 1653.
    • He now ruled the army.
Challenges to the Commonwealth
puritan society

Puritans tried to rid society of godlessness and impose the “rule of saints”.

    • Thus, the English Civil War was considered a social revolution as well as a political one.
  • Sunday was set aside for religious observance.
    • People could be fined for “profaning the Lord’s Day” by going to theaters, dances, taverns, or from gambling.
Puritan Society
puritan society cont d

Puritans thought that everyone should be able to read the Bible.

    • They encouraged education for all people and schools became common.
  • Puritans also wanted to change marriage.
    • They wanted marriage to be based on love, not business interests.
    • Women used to be seen as subordinate to men.
      • However, some Protestant groups allowed women to preach sermons.
  • Cromwell believed in religious freedom for everyone except Catholics.
    • After 350 years of exile, he welcomed the Jews back to England.
Puritan Society Cont’d
end of the commonwealth

In 1658, Oliver Cromwell died, leading to the end of the Puritan dominance in England.

    • Many were tried for military rules and Puritan ways.
    • In 1669, the new Parliament invited Charles II to return from his exile.
  • The monarchy was restored.
    • However, many Puritan ideas concerning morality, equality, government, and education were still used.
      • These ideas helped shape the United States of America.
End of the Commonwealth
from restoration to glorious revolution

Charles II was welcomed back in May of 1660.

    • He was a popular young ruler who reopened theaters and taverns closed by Cromwell.
    • He presided over a court and restored the Church of England.
      • Some Protestant religions were tolerated, though, as well.
    • Charles accepted the Petition of Rights.
      • However, he still believed in absolute monarchy and Catholic beliefs.
From Restoration to Glorious Revolution
a new clash with parliament

James II inherited the throne from his brother Charles II in 1685.

    • He showed off his Catholic beliefs and angered his subjects by suspending laws whenever he felt like it and appointing Catholics to high offices.
  • In 1688, Parliament leaders invited Mary, James’s Protestant daughter, and William III of Orange, her Protestant husband, to become the rulers of England.
    • The couple landed their army late in 1688, causing James II to flee to France.
    • This overthrow of the king became known as the Glorious Revolution.
A New Clash With Parliament
english bill of rights

William and Mary had to accept certain acts made by Parliament in 1689 before they were crowned.

    • These acts were known as the English Bill of Rights.
      • It ensured that Parliament had power over the monarchy.
      • It also said that the monarch had to summon Parliament regularly and gave the House of Commons the “power of the purse”.
      • It barred Catholics from ruling and the monarchy from interfering with debates or laws.
      • The English Bill of Rights also said the rights of English citizens.
        • It abolished unnecessarily large fines and cruel or unjust punishment.
        • Habeas corpus was also affirmed.
  • The Toleration Act of 1689 granted religious freedoms to most religions except Catholics.
English Bill of Rights
looking ahead

A limited monarchy was created from the Glorious Revolution.

    • This meant that even though English rulers still had much power, they had to obey the law and work with Parliament.
    • Because most other areas of Europe were ruled using absolute monarchy, the limited monarchy of England was very radical.
Looking Ahead

Dissenter- Person with different views than the mainstream

  • Charles I of England- Did not work with Parliament, disbanded them, recalled them, caused English Civil war and was first Monarch to be tried and executed by his people
  • Roundheads- Supporters of the Crown during the English Civil War
  • Cavaliers- Supporters of Parliament during the English Civil War
  • English Bill of Rights- William and Mary signed, limited the power of the Monarch
  • Habeas Corpus- Cannot be held in jail without being charged with a crime
  • Limited Monarchy- Monarchy limited by a legislature or a constitution

What was the family name of the rulers of England from 1485-1603? Tudor

  • What country does Parliament run, or is the legislative body in? England
  • After the death of Elizabeth what family too over the throne in England? Stuart, James I
  • What did James I do to Parliament? Dissolved it, got rid of it
  • What was the war between the Cavilers and Roundheads called? English Civil War
  • What was the fate of King Charles I after he was captured by the Roundheads? Head chopped off
  • Who became leader of England after the war? Oliver Cromwell
  • What religion did the English leader hold too after the war? Puritanism/Protestantism
  • After Oliver Cromwell who did the Parliament invite back to be King of England? Charles II


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