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Drug Imports & Exports. Import/Export of Drugs Chicago District-Import Team August 26,2010. Michael Giammanco, CSO Sherea L. Dillon, CSO. Topics to Cover. Drug Imports and Exports Errors Commonly Seen at O’Hare What is required for Review Affirmation of Compliance

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import export of drugs chicago district import team august 26 2010

Import/Export of Drugs Chicago District-Import TeamAugust 26,2010

Michael Giammanco, CSO

Sherea L. Dillon, CSO

topics to cover
Topics to Cover
  • Drug Imports and Exports
  • Errors Commonly Seen at O’Hare
  • What is required for Review
    • Affirmation of Compliance
      • Registration and Listing
      • NDA/ANDA/
      • Manufacture Name and Location
      • Reason for USRG
definition drug 201 g 1
Definition: “Drug” [201(g)(1)]


  • Intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat or prevent disease in man or other animals
  • Intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals (other than food)
  • Recognized in the USP/NF, HPUS or any supplements
  • Intended for use as a component of a drug
imported drug product
  • 80% APIs
  • 40% finished drugs
  • Heparin sodium adulteration
  • DEG
  • Melamine
  • Drug Diversion (ketamine)
r l requirements 510 j 21 cfr 207
R & L Requirements [510(j) & 21 CFR 207]

All foreign firms that manufacture, prepare, propagate, compound, or process a drug imported or offered for import into the U.S. are required to…

  • Register their name and place of business
  • List all drug products imported or offered for import into the U.S. (FDA form 2657)
  • Designate a U.S. Agent
r l requirements
R & L Requirements
  • Manufacturers: APIs & finished drug products
  • Repackers and relabelers
  • Control laboratories: registration only
  • Domestic manufactures that pack/repack, label/relabeled, etc. drugs under the Import for Export (IFE) requirements
  • NDC #:
    • FDA requests but not require that it appears on the product label or labeling
    • If NDC # appears on the label it must comply with regulation [21 CFR 207.35 (b)(3)]
  • Registration & Listing does not indicate FDA’s approval of a firm or its products [21 CFR 207.39]
r l requirements10
R & L Requirements
  • Registration must be renewed annually
  • Registration required before any application is approved
  • Listing information must be updated:
    • Every June and December or
    • Discretion of the registrant or
    • When any change occurs
r l requirements u s agent 21 cfr 207 40 c
R & L Requirements U.S. Agent (21 CFR 207.40(c))
  • Each foreign drug establishment must designate only one U.S. agent
  • Must be physically located in the U.S.
  • Point of contact between FDA and foreign firm on all drug registration & listing matters and requirements
r l requirements u s agent 21 cfr 207 40 c12
R & L Requirements U.S. Agent (21 CFR 207.40(c))

Letter of designation must:

  • Be prepared on the foreign firm's letterhead
  • Be signed by authorizing official of the firm
  • Contain the following:

- Name of the firm's designated U.S. Agent

- Address

- Telephone/fax numbers, and

- E-mail address

r l requirements13
R & L Requirements
  • Listed products: assigned National Drug Code number (NDC #)
  • NDC # identifies the following:
    • Manufacturer or distributor
    • Drug
    • Trade package size and type
  • Un-listed products are misbranded [502(o)]
listing exemptions
Listing Exemptions
  • Component of a drug (e.g. ingredients or non-API intermediates used to synthesize APIs)
  • Drugs not for importation into U.S. (i.e. FTZ)
  • Drugs offered under Investigational New Drug (IND) [21 CFR 312]
  • Research for own study only andnot for research in humans (If distributed by someone and research is conducted by someone else then, not exempt)
r l information
R & L Information

FDA Forms: http://www.hhs.gov/forms

NDC Directory: www.fda.gov


Commercial Shipments transmitted to Chicago

Approved Drugs

Unapproved Drugs

Investigational New Drugs

Over the Counter OTC


Drugs for Research and Development

PLAIR (Pre-Launch Activities Importation Requests)


prescription rx drugs 503 b 1
Prescription (Rx) drugs [503(b)(1)]
  • These drugs cannot be used safely without medical supervision


  • Injectable* drugs or
  • drugs to treat serious conditions like heart disease, cancer, or fertility problems

* Generally, injectable drugs are Rx, but insulin is not Rx in every state.

mr ind vs nda vs anda

NDA vs. ANDA: The differences in the two are noted in Green. IND eventually becomes NDA

(Generic Drug)

ANDA Requirements

1-3. Bioequivalence

4. Chemistry

5. Manufacturing

6. Controls

7. Labeling

8. Testing

(Brand Name Drug)

NDA Requirements

1. Animal Studies*

2. Clinical Studies*

3. Bioavailability Studies

4. Chemistry

5. Manufacturing

6. Controls

7. Labeling

8. Testing

marketing requirements nda anda
Marketing requirements (NDA/ANDA)

Approved new drug must be:

  • Manufactured, packaged, or labeled at a facility covered in the application using the formulation and process approved
  • Manufactured using an API supplied by a manufacturer covered in the application
definition over the counter otc drug
Definition:Over-the-counter (OTC)drug
  • All other drugs that can be used safely without medical supervision


  • Medications for fever such as aspirin and acetaminophen
  • Preparations for the common cold or allergies
  • Antacids, and
  • Some first aid antibiotics
definition over the counter otc drug22
Definition:Over-the-counter (OTC)drug
  • Do some OTC products have NDA/ANDAs?
    • Yes
    • No
otc drugs
  • Most OTC drugs on market not covered by approved NDAs
  • Large number of OTC drugs on market in 1972 did not have FDA approval
  • Agency decided to have a class-by-class review for OTC drugs instead of NDAs
  • Final rules in effect 21 CFR 331-358
  • Negative monographs found in 21 CFR 310
otc drugs24
  • Where there is a final monograph (FM), OTC drug must meet the FM including labeling and formulation
  • Product must also comply with all other labeling requirements of the FDCA
  • Drug must be manufactured under cGMPs
  • Firm is registered and the product is listed
  • Some drugs switched from Rx to OTC still require NDA (ibuprofen, Advil)
  • Timed-release drugs require approval 21 CFR 310.502(a)(14)
chemical or drug
Chemical or Drug
  • Per the FDCA, chemicals can be drugs, but not all chemicals are drugs
    • • Regulation 21 CFR 201.128, concerns the meaning of “intended uses”– Intent is determined by labeling, advertising matter, oral or written statements
  • GHB, GBL, DMSO, Procaine
api use in clinical studies a k a ind 21 cfr 201 122 b
API Use inClinical Studies(a.k.a. IND)[21 CFR 201.122(b)]
  • Must be covered by an active IND
  • Must be going to person(s) authorized in the IND
  • Drugs for clinical studies may not be used for manufacturing.
marketing requirements mr desi
Marketing Requirements (MR):DESI
  • Review initiated in response to the Drug Amendments of 1962 to assess the effectiveness of drugs that had been previously found to be safe under the Act
  • DESI drugs are drugs that were the subject of pre-1962 (safety only) NDAs and drugs that are identical, related, and similar to such drugs [21 CFR 310.6]
mr desi
  • Once final order issued and any appeals exhausted, application approval required for continued marketing
  • Continued marketing permitted (exercise enforcement discretion per CPG 7132C.02 (Sec. 440.100)) while administrative process and any judicial appeals are pending (DESI pending) and may be recognized as part of the "DESI" drug
  • CDER's policy: There are no such drugs as "grandfathered drugs"
mr the 1996 export reform act import for export ife 801 d 3
MR: The 1996 Export Reform Act Import for Export (IFE) [801(d)(3)]
  • Allows importation of violative articles (including finished drugs) intended for export [801(e) & 802] only if further processed
  • FDA must be provided with certain information:
    • Written statement article is to be further processed, id manufacture, processor, packer, distributor or any entity that had possession of the article
    • COA to identify the article
    • Records when requested
  • Must execute a bond for any liquidated damages
  • Must maintain records of use and/or destruction
  • Must destroy any article not used in production
mr the 1996 export reform act import for export ife 801 d 331
MR: The 1996 Export Reform Act Import for Export (IFE) [801(d)(3)]
  • Article can be refused admission if credible evidence that it is not intended to be further processed
  • Prohibited Acts [301(w)]: Exempts exportation
    • False information and statement
    • Introduction into interstate commerce any article (including finished)
    • Not submitting and maintaining records and COA
mr foreign trade zone ftz
MR: Foreign Trade Zone (FTZ)
  • CBP’s designation to exempt from payment of duties, taxes and bonds and considered by them to be outside U.S.
  • Articles not offered for consumption, thus not considered “imported or offered for import”
  • If in FTZ, subject to FDA laws since considered within the “territory” of the U.S.
  • 801 does not apply until article is out of FTZ
  • Introducing unapproved new drugs into FTZ violates new drugs [355(a)] and prohibited [301(d)]
  • Can bring into FTZ articles (bulk or finished) pending approval
affirmations of compliance
Affirmations of Compliance

Human Rx

  • Registration
  • Animal Rx
  • Registration
  • OTC
  • Registration
affirmations of compliance35
Affirmations of Compliance

PLAIR (Pre-Launch Activities Importation Request)

  • CDER Approval


  • IND

Research Use

  • Statement of Intended Use
common errors made on drugs
Common Errors Made on Drugs
  • Submitting Affirmation of Compliance for Animal and Human Drugs in the Affirmation Section
    • Many Brokers put the NDA/ANDA in the product description. This is incorrect. It should go in the Affirmation of Compliance Section
  • Multiple NDAs and uses should be filed on different lines of the entry.
    • Different NDAs should be on different lines, to avoid errors, different purposes
common errors made on drugs37
Common Errors Made on Drugs
  • Drug Compounding information should be submitted to FDA when entry is made and should have the proper documents for release.
  • Drugs not listed
  • Imported Drug does not reflect Product code
  • Quantity Description
    • Bulk API vs. Finished Drug
drug imports exports cont
Importer given opportunity to bring product into compliance.

Products which are not brought into compliance are refused admission into the U.S.

Refused articles must either be destroyed or re-exported

Drug Imports & Exports (cont)
thank you
Thank you!