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Japanese Gas Industry and Its Efforts in Reducing CO2 Emission. December 10, 2004 Hiroshi Ozaki The Japan Gas Association. Contents. Japanese gas industry and its CO2 Emission Target Benchmark as Performance Assessment Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

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Japanese gas industry and its efforts in reducing co2 emission

Japanese Gas Industry and Its Efforts in Reducing CO2 Emission

December 10, 2004

Hiroshi Ozaki

The Japan Gas Association


Contents
Contents Emission

  • Japanese gas industry and its

    CO2 Emission Target

  • Benchmark as Performance Assessment

  • Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

    • emission reduction on customers’ site

    • emission from Use of Grid Power



Japanese gas industry an overview

Japanese Gas Industry and Its CO2 Emission Target Emission

Japanese gas industry – an overview

  • No. of utilities: 227

    • diverse in size of operation

  • Scale of operation

    • Gas sold: 29 billion m3 (top 10: 85% )

    • Customers: 27 million

    • Vertically integrated: from supply to retail

    • 90% LNG, 10% petroleum-based


Co2 emission target

Japanese Gas Industry and Its CO2 Emission Target Emission

CO2 Emission Target

To reduce CO2 emission from our operation

  • Target

    23g-CO2/m3 (2010)

    73g-CO2/m3 (1990)

  • Means

    • Conversion to

      natural gas (LNG)

    • Energy saving at

      LNG terminals


Benchmark as performance assessment

Benchmark Emissionas Performance Assessment


Relativity

Benchmark as Performance Assessment Emission

Relativity

  • Emission rate (CO2/product or service) is more useful than absolute emission quantity.

    • To identify solutions

    • To find direction


Benchmark for the japanese gas utilities

Benchmark as Performance Assessment Emission

Benchmark for the Japanese Gas Utilities

  • Benchmark : CO2 emission/m3

    • comparison within class

    • single benchmark not equitable

  • Considerations for design

    • size

    • type of gas

    • subject facilities

    • geographic factors, etc.


Stringency level

Benchmark as Performance Assessment Emission

Stringency Level

Higher benchmark levels

  • more effective to start at an easy level and raise the level

Initial benchmark levels

Achieve

Review

Verify



Our approach

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects Emission

Our approach

  • Focus on demand side emissions

  • Enhancing efficient utilization (energy company’s mission)

    • Conversion to natural gas from other fuels

    • Introducing energy-efficient equipment

      • Ex: CHP (combined heat & power)

    • ESCO business


Requirements

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects Emission

Requirements

  • Criteria for Evaluation: comparison with baseline

  • Benchmark as baseline :

    • easy to use and objective

    • reflective of reality


Issues to be considered

Area EmissionX

AreaY

CO2 emission factor

a

b

c

d

e

new

project

existing facilities

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects

Issues to be considered

  • Broadnessvs.Accuracy

    • diversity ofbackground

      affects baseline

    • applicable conditions are

      vital for choice of good projects

Benchmark?


Designing a benchmark as baseline

Benchmark as Baseline for Evaluation of Projects Emission

Designing a Benchmark as Baseline

  • Steps towards benchmark

    • to analyse & identify the background

    • to verify applicability of benchmark

    • to examine stringency level

  • Database of project baselines may help


Determination of emission from use of grid power

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

Average Emission Factor (AEF)

and

Marginal Emission Factor (MEF)


Grid power viewed from co2 emission

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

Grid Power viewed from CO2 Emission

CO2 emission

Thermal

Nuclear

Hydro

Demand side

Supply side

  • Emission at generation site only

  • Power supplied from different sources

  • Power distributed through grid


Co2 emission from power consumption attribution

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

CO2 Emission from Power Consumption- attribution

1. Calculate at generation source only: EU-ETS

  • Costs passed through to users: same as AEF

    2. Calculate demand side emission (virtual and indirect) by Average Emission Factor (AEF)

  • Proportionally distributed to all customers

  • Formula: CO2=Power consumed X AEF

    3. Calculate emission reduction

    by Marginal Emission Factor (MEF)

  • Effect of power saving on reduced CO2 emission

  • Formula: Reduced CO2=Power saved X MEF


Estimating emission on demand side

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

Estimating Emission on Demand Side

  • AEF used to estimate total emission on demand side

  • CO2 emission distributed proportionally to all users

Customer 1

Thermal

Customer 2

Hydro

Customer N

Nuclear

Wind

Supply side

Demand side


Evaluating reduced emission on demand side

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

Evaluating Reduced Emission on Demand Side

  • MEF used to calculate emission reduction by power saving

  • MEF: Emission factor of Power source displaced or delayed by power saving

reduction

Customer 1

Thermal

Customer 2

Hydro

Customer N

Nuclear

Wind

Supply side

Demand side


Choice of emission factor

Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power Emission

Choice of Emission Factor

  • AEF and MEF not clearly distinguished

    • Emission volume by AEF

    • Reduced emission by MEF

  • AEF used for being conservative ?


  • Proper evaluation using mef

    Hydro Emission

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Thermal

    Thermal

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Thermal

    Thermal

    Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

    Proper Evaluation Using MEF

    • Specify power replaced or reduced power sources through power saving and renewable projects.

    • MEF MUST BE USED for proper evaluation.


    Using aef for evaluating reduced emission a road to dire consequences

    Hydro Emission

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Thermal

    Thermal

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Hydro

    Nuclear

    Wind

    Thermal

    Thermal

    Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

    Using AEF for Evaluating Reduced Emission- a road to dire consequences?

    • Emission reduction by power saving on demand side equally translated into all power sources

    • Erroneous evaluation of power saving effects and renewable projects

    Discourages Promising CO2 Reduction Projects


    Emission factors and conservatism

    AEF and conservatism are irrelevant Emission

    Appropriate MEF

    Power increment or

    decrement

    ×

    Determination of Emission from Use of Grid Power

    Emission Factors and Conservatism

    New Projects

    conservative

    Power saving

    AEF?

    conservative

    Power consumption

    increased

    ?



    Japanese gas industry and its efforts in reducing co2 emission

    Thank you. Emission