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Entrepreneurship and New Business Development. Lecture 2 - The Entrepreneur Johan Brink. Origin of Entrepreneurship research. Cantillon 1755 Interact with suppliers at known prices in order to produce goods that could later be sold at unknown prices, Risk taker Mill 1848

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entrepreneurship and new business development
Entrepreneurship and New Business Development

Lecture 2 - The Entrepreneur

Johan Brink

origin of entrepreneurship research
Origin of Entrepreneurship research

Cantillon 1755

Interact with suppliers at known prices in order to produce goods that could later be sold at unknown prices, Risk taker

Mill 1848

Risk is asserted as a key in entrepreneurial activities

Neoclassical Menger, Jevons, Walras –

Price mechanism and allocation

Baumol 1968

Critique neoclassical omission of the entrepreneur – models of constrained optimization, exogenous factors

Brich 1979)

Job creation

individuals personal traits
Individuals - Personal traits
  • How should an Entrepreneur be?
    • Discuss 2 and 2
the myth of the individual
The myth of the individual

Of the 10 years sampled, 480 articles were studied and all portrayed the entrepreneur as an individual. (Nicholson and Anderson,2005)


My hero

Gentle giant

Masters of time and space

Likable rogue

Polite rebel

Ultimate outsider

individuals personal traits1
Individuals - Personal traits
  • Need for achievement
  • Locus of control
  • Risk taking
  • Tolerate ambiguity
  • Self efficacy
  • Goal setting
  • Regretful thinking
  • Rely on low representativeness
  • E and High achievers
  • E and High achievers
  • No difference!
  • No difference!
  • E! (Weak)
  • E and High achievers
  • E! (Weak)
  • E! (Weak)
risk and uncertainty
Risk and Uncertainty

Risk as:

  • Variance
  • Downside loss
  • Opportunity cost
  • Near or distant in time
risk and uncertainty1
Risk and Uncertainty
  • Assumed that everyone agrees on the level of risk involved, and that some people (entrepreneurs) are constitutionally more willing to take the chance than are other people (non-entrepreneurs).
  • Research have often failed to find risk-taking propensity associated with success in new venture creation (e.g., Brockhaus, 1980, 1987).
  • Perhaps those who found businesses do not think about the risks in these statistical terms!!!
  • Resent research actually points toward Entrepreneurs being more risk averse! - Thus other motivations than profit/pecuniary!

Risk as:

  • Variance
  • Downside loss
  • Opportunity cost
  • Near or distant in time
entrepreneurs and managers
Entrepreneurs and managers
  • How do they think different from managers?

Discuss 2 and 2

modern entrepreneurship theories
Modern Entrepreneurship Theories


  • How do they think?
  • Opportunity & Alertness (Kirzner, 1979)

Sociological & Economics

  • What do they do?
  • Resources & Foundation of organizations (Gartner, 1988)
entrepreneurial alertness
Entrepreneurial Alertness

Kirzner (1979, 73, 85) entrepreneurial alertness, a distinctive set of perceptual and cognitive processing skills.

  • “the ability to notice without search opportunities that have hitherto been overlooked” (1979, p. 48)
  • “a motivated propensity of man to formulate an image of the future” (1985, p. 56).

If Kirzner is correct, alert individuals have:

  • More accurate mental models
  • A better grip on reality because they perceive it more accurately
  • Are better at inferring the likely implications and consequences
cognitive theories
Cognitive Theories

Schemata & Heuristics

  • Human beings simply do not have the cognitive capacity to process and remember all information stimuli that arise from complex situations (Komatsu 1992).
  • Effective under uncertainty – bounded rationality

Learning knowledge:

    • Unlike personal traits, cognitive processes can be changed!
    • Experts have more complex schema characterized by extensive cross- links to other schema
prior knowledge
Prior knowledge

Source of knowledge

  • Work experience
  • A similar business – stolen with pride!
  • Hobby /Personal interest

Cognitive schemata


  • Interpretation of opportunity - people recognize those opportunities related to information that they al- ready possess (Venkataraman1997).
cognitive bias entrepreneurship
Cognitive bias - Entrepreneurship
  • Availability bias
    • Noticeable in the past, spectacular: A person who just read about another restaurant's closing in the morning paper will give a higher estimate of failures than will a person who has not seen such a story in a long time
  • Representativeness bias
    • Comparative to previous: A person for whom Restaurant X is typical of successful establishments will make a lower guess about failure than will a person for whom the Restaurant X resembles failures
  • Anchoring bias
    • Relative to given reference point: A perceiver who knows that three local restaurants have failed will make a smaller estimate than a perceiver who has been told that 10,000 restaurants have failed nationally
cognitive bias entrepreneurship1
Cognitive bias - Entrepreneurship
  • Confirmation bias
    • Attach greater weight to information which confirms rather than disconfirming info. A person who just started a restaurant have a higher tendency to pay attention to another restaurant's success than failure
  • Hindsight
    • Past events as having higher probabilities than actually are, A person who has worked within a successful restaurant will overestimate the success rate of restaurants
entrepreneurial bias
Entrepreneurial bias
  • Over confident
    • Availability, anchoring, confirmation, hindsight, confirmation
    • People do not know what they do, and do not do – the paradox of the uninformed!
    • Entrepreneurs personal experience - But its rational to collect less information while being over-confident!
entrepreneurial bias1
Entrepreneurial bias
  • Belief in small numbers
    • Representative, Hindsight
    • But its rational to do this while entrepreneurs lack resources!
entrepreneurial bias2
Entrepreneurial bias
  • Over optimism
    • Over positive self evaluations
    • Over optimism about future plans
      • Failure to break down tasks
    • Over optimism about control
      • Judge the relative importance of skill and chance
      • Motivated to control their environment


  • Flexibility
  • Income - Necessity
  • Learn and develop as a person


  • Wealth
  • Product- to develop a idea


  • Recognition
  • Admiration
  • Power
  • Family – continuation a tradition
what about having fun
What about having fun?

Persons experiencing positive affect…

  • Tend to be persistent
  • Tend to perceive objects, other persons, ideas, and almost anything else more positive
  • Productive working relationships
  • Tend to base decision making on satisfying condition rather than maximizing & optimizing
  • Rely on low representativeness
  • Enhance creativity
opportunities underlying changes
Opportunities:Underlying changes

Entrepreneurial opportunities are those situations in which new goods, services, raw materials, and organizing methods can be introduced and sold at greater than their cost of production (Casson, 1982).

(1) the creation of new information, as occurs with the invention of new technologies;

(2) the exploitation of market inefficiencies that result from information asymmetry, as occurs across time and geography; and

(3) the reaction to shifts in the relative costs and benefits of alternative uses for resources, as occurs with political, regulatory, or demographic changes.

(Drucker 1985)

opportunities entrepreneurial activities
Opportunities: Entrepreneurial activities
  • Expected demand is large
    • (Schmookler, 1966; Schumpeter, 1934)
  • Industry profit margins are high
    • (Dunne, Roberts, & Samuelson, 1988),
  • The technology life cycle is young
    • (Utterback, 1994),
  • The cost of capital is low
    • (Shane, 1996)
  • The density of competition in a particular opportunity space is neither too low nor too high
    • (Hannan & Freeman, 1984)
  • Population-level learning from other entrants is available
    • (Aldrich &Wiedenmeyer, 1993)
create or discover opportunities
Create or discover opportunities?




What came first?

Idea :

Decision to start a business:


(Handbook of entrepreneurial dynamics Gartner et al 2004)

different opportunities
Different opportunities
  • Opportunity recognition involves matching known products with existing demand. The entrepreneur connects dispersed knowledge regarding products and demand to exploit a previously unrecognized market opportunity.
  • Opportunity discovery starts either from a known supply and proceeds in search of an unknown demand, or from a known demand that motivates search for an unknown supply. Once the missing side of the transaction is discovered, the market opportunity can be exploited.
  • Opportunity creation neither the supply nor demand exists prior to entrepreneurial action; instead, the entrepreneur participates in creating both.
    • Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal Strat. Entrepreneurship J., 1: 11–26 (2007)
  • Opportunity Recognition as Pattern Recognition: How Entrepreneurs “Connect the Dots” to Identify New Business Opportunities
    • Robert A. Baron
    • Academy of Management Perspectives, February 2006
  • Causation and effectuation: Toward a Theoretical shift from economic inevitability to Entrepreneurial contingency
    • S Sarasvathy
    • Academy of Management Review, 26:2 , 2001