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Citius, Altius, Fortius! (“Faster, Higher, Stronger!”). THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC MOVEMENT by Michele Colucci University of Illinois, spring 2008. WHAT IS “OLYMPISM”?. A PHILOSPHY OF LIFE...

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citius altius fortius faster higher stronger
Citius, Altius, Fortius!

(“Faster, Higher, Stronger!”)

THE INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC MOVEMENTby Michele Colucciwww.colucci.euinfo@colucci.euUniversity of Illinois, spring 2008
what is olympism

exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind!

the olympic charter goals
The Olympic charterGOALS
  • Way of life based on the joy of effort!
  • Educational value of good example!
  • Respect for universal fundamental ethical principles!
  • Sport at the service of the harmonious development of man!
  • Promotion a peaceful society!
  • Preservation of human dignity!
the practice of sport is a human right
  • Every individual must have the possibility of practising sport!
  • No discrimination of any kind!
  • Olympic spirit:
    • mutual understanding,
    • spirit of friendship, solidarity and fair play!
the olympic movement
The Olympic Movement
    • International Olympic Committee, which “may recognize”:
    • International Federations (IFs)
    • National Olympic Committees (NOCs)
    • Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games (OCOGs)
    • National associations, clubs, and the persons belonging to them, particularly the athletes
    • Other organizations as recognized by the International Olympic Committee
the international olympic committee
The International Olympic Committee
  • Characteristics of the IOC
    • Non-governmental
    • Non-profit
    • Unlimited duration and legal personality
    • Headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland
    • Considered the supreme authority
    • Olympic Charter:
      • Codification of the fundamental principles, rules, and bylaws adopted by the IOC
      • In force as from 7 July 2007
      • Governs the organization and operation of the Olympic Movement
the international olympic committee mission and role i
The International Olympic CommitteeMission and Role I
  • To encourage and support:
    • the promotion of ethics in sport as well as education of youth through sport;
    • the organisation, development and coordination of sport and sports competitions;
    • the promotion of women in sport at all levels and in all structures with a view to implementing the principle of equality of men and women;
    • measures protecting the health of athletes;
    • the efforts of sports organisations and public authorities to provide for the social and professional future of athletes;
    • the development of sport for all;
    • a responsible concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly;
    • initiatives blending sport with culture and education;
    • the activities of the International Olympic Academy (“IOA”) and other institutions which dedicate themselves to Olympic education.
the international olympic committee mission and role ii
The International Olympic CommitteeMission and Role II
  • to dedicate its efforts to ensuring that, in sport, the spirit of fair play prevails and violence is banned;
  • to ensure the regular celebration of the Olympic Games;
  • to cooperate with the competent public or private organisations and authorities in the endeavour to place sport at the service of humanity and thereby to promote peace;
  • to take action in order to strengthen the unity and to protect the independence of the Olympic Movement;
  • to act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic Movement;
  • to lead the fight against doping in sport;
  • to oppose any political or commercial abuse of sport and athletes;
  • to promote a positive legacy from the Olympic Games to the host cities and host countries.
the international olympic committee1
The International Olympic Committee
  • IOC owns exclusive rights to:
    • The Olympic symbol
    • The Olympic flag
    • The Olympic motto
    • The Olympic anthem
    • The Olympic Games
ioc members
IOC Members
  • Natural persons:
    • active athletes
    • presidents or senior leaders of Ifs, association of Ifs
    • Presidents or persons holding an executive or senior leadership position within NOCs, or world or continental associations of NOCs
  • They represent and promote the interests of the IOC and of the Olympic Movement;
  • They are “independent”!
  • IOC members are not personally liable for the debts and obligations of the IOC
ioc members obligations
IOC Members Obligations
  • to comply with the Olympic Charter, the Code of Ethics and other regulations of the IOC;
  • to participate in Sessions;
  • to participate in the work of the IOC commissions to which the member has been appointed;
  • ...
ioc governance
IOC governance
  • The “Session”
    • The supreme body of the IOC
    • Held at least once per year
    • Main function is to adopt, modify, and interpret the Olympic Charter
    • Decisions are final
    • May delegate powers to the Executive Board
ioc governance1
IOC governance
  • The “Executive Board”
    • IOC president, four Vice-presidents, and ten additional members
    • All members elected by the “Session”
    • Responsible for managing IOC finances, preparing the annual report, submitting names recommended for IOC membership, establishing agenda for IOC Sessions
ioc governance2
IOC governance
  • The President
    • Heads the International Olympic Committee (IOC)
    • Supervises all activities of the IOC
    • Nominates special commissions
measures and sanctions
Measures and Sanctions
  • With regard to IOC members, the Honorary President, honorary members and honour members:
    • a) a reprimand, pronounced by the IOC Executive Board;
    • b) suspension, for a specific period, pronounced by the IOC Executive Board.
measures and sanctions1
Measures and Sanctions
  • with regard to IFs:
    • a) withdrawal from the programme of the Olympic Games of:
      • a sport (Session),
      • a discipline (IOC Executive Board),
      • an event (IOC Executive Board);
    • b) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);
    • c) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).
  • with regard to associations of IFs:
    • a) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);
    • b) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).
measures and sanctions2
Measures and Sanctions
  • with regard to NOCs:
    • a) suspension (IOC Executive Board); in such event, the IOC Executive Board determines in each case the consequences for the NOC concerned and its athletes;
    • b) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);
    • c) withdrawal of full recognition (Session); in such a case, the NOC forfeits all rights conferred upon it in accordance with the Olympic Charter;
    • d) withdrawal of the right to organise a Session or an Olympic Congress (Session).
  • with regard to associations of NOCs:
    • a) withdrawal of provisional recognition (IOC Executive Board);
    • b) withdrawal of full recognition (Session).
measures and sanctions3
  • With regard to a host city, an OCOG and an NOC:
    • withdrawal of the right to organise the Olympic Games.
  • With regard to applicant or candidate cities and an NOC:
    • withdrawal of the right to be an applicant or a candidate city to host the Olympic Games
  • With regard to other recognised associations and organisations:
    • a) withdrawal of provisional recognition;
    • b) withdrawal of full recognition.
ioc finance
IOC Finance
  • Marketing Program

IOC responsible for overall direction and management of the Olympic marketing program

      • Television broadcast partnerships
      • Corporate sponsorships
      • Ticketing
      • Licensing
  • Revenues to:
    • organizing committees for the Olympic Games
    • the National Olympic Committees
    • Olympic Solidarity, IFS, IOC
ioc finance1
IOC Finance
  • Main sources of revenue
    • Broadcasting – 50%
    • Sponsorship – 40%
    • Ticketing – 8%
    • Licensing – 2%
ioc finance2
IOC Finance
  • Olympic sponsorship
      • Relationship between the Olympic movement and corporations intended to generate support for the Olympic Movement and the Olympic Games
ioc finance3
IOC Finance
  • Olympic Partner Program (TOP)
    • Corporations pay millions of dollars for status as an official Olympic sponsor for a minimum of 4 years
    • Idea was to sell a limited number of worldwide sponsorships,
    • Each TOP sponsor was granted exclusivity in a sponsorship category
the national olympic committees
The National Olympic Committees
  • NOC’s Requirements
    • Propagate the fundamental principles of Olympism at the national level within the framework of sports activity an otherwise contribute to the diffusion of Olympism in the teaching programs of physical education and sport in schools and universities
    • Ensure the observance of the Olympic Charter in their countries
    • Encourage the development of high performance sport as well as sport for all
    • Help in the training of sports administrators by organizing courses and ensure that such courses contribute to the propagation of the Fundamental Principles of Olympism
    • Commit themselves to taking action against any form of discrimination and violence in sport
    • Fight against the use of substances and procedures prohibited by the IOC or their IFs
the national olympic committees1
The National Olympic Committees
  • NOC Responsibilities
    • Responsible for the representation of their respective countries at the Olympic Games and at the regional, continental, or world competitions patronized by the IOC
    • Supervise the preliminary selection of potential bid cities
the national olympic committees2
The National Olympic Committees
  • NOC Regional Organizations
    • Association of National Olympic Committees of Africa
    • Olympic Council of Asia
    • The European Olympic Committees
    • Oceania National Olympic Committees
    • Pan American Sports Organization
    • Common objective of these regional associations is to uphold the Olympic Charter and promote sport in their region
the united states olympic committee http www usoc org
The United States Olympic Committee
  • Main Tasks:

leadership and guidance for the Olympic movement in the US

the united states olympic committee
The United States Olympic Committee
  • Amateur Sports Act of 1978
    • USOC :
      • coordinating body for all Olympic-related athletic activity in the UC
      • sole authority for supervision and development of sports in the Olympics and Pan Am Games
      • responsible for promoting and supporting physical fitness and public participation in athletic activities by encouraging developmental programs in its membership organizations
the united states olympic committee1
The United States Olympic Committee
  • USOC Member organizations
    • Olympic and Pan American sport organizations
    • Affiliated sport organizations
    • Community-based and education-based multisport organizations
    • Athletes’ representatives
    • Armed Forces
    • Disabled in sports
    • State Fund-raising organizations
    • Associate members
    • Representatives of the public sector
the united states olympic committee2
The United States Olympic Committee
  • exclusive rights to:
    • Symbol of the International Olympic Committee
    • USOC emblem
    • Words “Olympic”, “Olympiad”, and “Citius, Altius, Fortius”
the united states olympic committee3
The United States Olympic Committee
  • USOC Funding
      • USOC obtains almost no funding from federal sources
      • Majority of revenue is derived from private fund-raising, licensing, and sponsorships
the united states olympic committee4
The United States Olympic Committee
  • USOC’s Organizational Structure
    • Officers – President, 3 vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer
    • Executive Committee – responsible for supervising conduct of business affairs for the USOC
    • Board of Directors – establishes policies to be carried out in following USOC purposes and objectives
    • Standing and Special Committees - make recommendations to and reporting to the board of directors
    • Athletes’ Advisory Council – helps improve communications between the USOC and active athletes
international federations
International Federations
  • Characteristics
    • International, non-governmental organizations
    • Administering one or more sports at the world level/national level
  • Role
    • To establish and enforce the rules concerning the practice of their respective sports and ensure the development of their sports throughout the world
international federations1
International Federations

Summer IFs Winter Ifs

  • Intl Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) Intl Biathlon Union (IBU)
  • Intl Rowing Federation (FISA) Intl Bobsleigh and Tobogganing Fed. (FIBT)
  • Intl Badminton Federation (IBF) World Curling Federation (WCF)
  • Intl Baseball Federation (IBAF) Intl Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
  • Intl Basketball Federation (FIBA) Intl Luge Federation (FIL) International
  • Intl Boxing Association (AIBA) Intl Skating Union (ISU)
  • Intl Canoe Federation (ICF) Intl Ski Federation (FIS)
  • International Cycling Union (UCI)
  • International Equestrian Federation (FEI)
  • International Fencing Federation (FIE)
  • International Association Football Federation (FIFA)
  • International Gymnastics Federation (FIG)
  • International Weightlifting Federation (IWF)
  • International Handball Federation (IHF)
  • International Hockey Federation (FIH)
  • International Judo Federation (IJF)
  • International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles (FILA)
  • International Swimming Federation (FINA)
  • International Union of the Modern Pentathlon (UIPM)
  • International Softball Federation (ISF)
  • World Taekwondo Federation (WTF)
  • International Tennis Federation (ITF)
  • International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)
  • International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF)
  • International Archery Federation (FITA)
  • International Triathlon Union (ITU)
  • International Sailing Federation (ISAF)
  • International Volleyball Federation (FIVB)
international federations2
International Federations
  • Inclusion in the Olympic Program
    • Summer Olympics – sport must be practiced by men in at least 75 countries on four continents; women at least 40 countries on 3 continents
    • Winter Olympics – at least 25 countries on 3 continents
    • Sport is admitted to the program of the Olympic Games at least 7 years before the Olympics
    • A discipline (branch of an Olympic sport, i.e. beach volleyball) must have a recognized international standing to be included in the program for the Olympic games
    • An event must have a recognized international standing both numerically and geographically , and have been included at least twice in a world or continental championship
international federations3
International Federations
  • Bidding process
        • The cities communicate to the IOC their interest in hosting the Olympic games
        • The Executive Board approves them and the cities officially become Candidate Cities and proceed with a full bid
        • The IOC chooses five Candidate Cities
        • IOC will designate an Evaluation Commission
        • Candidate Cities have to present a Candidature File to the IOC
        • Site visit by the IOC Evaluation Commission
        • Evaluation Commission will submit a report on all candidates to the IOC two months before the Session
        • Host city will be chosen at that Session
organizing committees of the olympic games
Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games
  • When a host city is selected, an organizing committee of the Olympic Games (OCOG) has to be formed
  • Organization of the Olympic Games is entrusted to the National Olympic Committee of the country of the host city
organizing committees of the olympic games1
Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games
  • Areas addressed by the OCOG
    • Operations
    • Accommodations
    • Accreditation
    • Logistics
    • Host broadcasting
    • Television rights
    • Medical need
    • The Olympic Village
    • Security
    • Technology
    • Tickets
    • Transportation
    • Sport competitions
organizing committees of the olympic games2
Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games
  • The IOC will provide the majority of the budget up front due to the long-term broadcast and sponsorship revenue
advertising demonstrations propaganda rule 51 of the charter
Advertising, Demonstrations, Propaganda Rule 51 of the Charter
  • No form of advertising or other publicity shall be allowed in and above the stadia,venues and other competition areas which are considered as part of the Olympic sites.
  • Commercial installations and advertising signs shall not be allowed in the stadia, venues or other sports grounds.
  • BUT...
advertising demonstrations propaganda bye law to rule 51
Advertising, Demonstrations, Propaganda Bye-law to Rule 51
  • No form of publicity or propaganda, commercial or otherwise, may appear on persons, on sportswear, accessories or, more generally, on any article of clothing or equipment whatsoever worn or used by the athletes or other participants in the Olympic Games, except for the “identification” of the manufacturer of the article or equipment concerned, provided that such identification shall not be marked conspicuously for advertising purposes.
disputes and arbitration
  • Any dispute arising on the occasion of, or in connection with, the Olympic Games shall be submitted exclusively to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, in accordance with the Code of Sports-Related Arbitration.