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Chapter 7: Historical Linguistics. They said ‘ what’ ?. Language Change. [....]g fæder, þu þe on heofonum eardast, geweorðad wuldres dreame. 1000 AD Oure fader that art in heuenis halowid be thi name. 1400 Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. 1611 (KJV)

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chapter 7 historical linguistics

Chapter 7: Historical Linguistics

They said ‘what’ ?

language change
Language Change

[....]g fæder, þu þe on heofonum eardast, geweorðad wuldres dreame. 1000 AD

Oure fader that art in heuenis halowid be thi name. 1400

Our father which art in heauen, hallowed be thy name. 1611 (KJV)

Our Father in Heaven, let your holy name be known. 1970 (Condon)

nature of change
Nature of Change
  • Systematic
    • Rule governed
  • Invisible
    • Unconscious
    • Gradual
causes of change
Causes of Change
  • Ease of Articulation
  • Analogy & Reanalysis
  • Language Contact
  • Social Factors
sound change part i
Sound Change: Part I
  • Assimilation
    • Place/manner of articulation
      • Kick+pst = [kkt] vs. can +pst =[knd]
    • Palatalization/affrication
      • [s]  [s]
    • Nasalization
      • [sng]  [s]
sound change part ii
Sound Change : Part II
  • Dissimilation
    • Epenthesis
      • [gana]  [ganda] Old  Mid English
    • Metathesis
      • []  []
  • Weakening & Deletion
    • ≈ all vowels turn to []…
  • Consonant Strengthening
morpho syntatic change
Morpho-Syntatic Change
  • Word  affix
  • Affix  Ø
  • Folk etymology
    • Hamburger  Fishburger
  • Word order shift
lexio semantic change
Lexio-Semantic Change
  • Organic development
  • Borrowing
  • Loss
reconstruction
Reconstruction
  • Does anyone know how we got here?!?
  • Indo-European
  • Germanic
  • Old English (450 – 1066)Beowulf
  • Middle English (1066 – 1500)Chaucer
  • Modern English (1500 – ??)Shakespeare
  • World Englishes…
exercises
Exercises
  • 1: Do enough to get the point
  • 2, 3: Write the rules anyway you can
  • 6, 10
tomorrow
Tomorrow
  • Read Chapter 11
    • First Language Acquisition