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Birth of the United States. Chapters 4 & 5. Road to Independence. Chapter 4. The French and Indian War. Causes of War Rivalry Between Britain and France French had more land British along coast, French Inland B = farm, F = trapping French better with NAs. Albany Plan of Union.

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the french and indian war
The French and Indian War
  • Causes of War
    • Rivalry Between Britain and France
        • French had more land
        • British along coast, French Inland
        • B = farm, F = trapping
        • French better with NAs
albany plan of union
Albany Plan of Union
  • June 1754 – delegates to Albany
  • To strengthen ties with NAs
  • Unify war effort
  • Ben Franklin wanted a permanent union
  • Plan was a grand council of elected delegates from each colony run by a president
  • Similar to Iroquois League
  • Approved but colonies rejected
  • Didn’t want a central government
early british defeats
Early British Defeats
  • British lost at beginning
  • 1735 – 900 F and NA attacked
  • Militia – armed citizens who served as soldiers
  • British – open areas and straight lines
  • F and NA – hiding and spread out
the tide of war turns
The Tide of War Turns
  • 1756 – Britain declares war on France
  • William Pitt = British Prime Minister
  • Raised taxes and borrowed money to fight
  • British now better prepared
  • Won several major battles
  • French retreated
treaty of paris
Treaty of Paris
  • 1763 – Great Britain, France, Spain met in Paris
  • Ended French and Indian War and Seven Years’ War (Europe)
  • French lost everything
  • English got Canada, all land west of Mississippi
  • Spain got Cuba for Florida
weakened loyalty to the british
Weakened Loyalty to the British
  • Thought colonies didn’t help enough
  • Colonists would have fought under other colonists rather than British officers
  • Considered treasonous
  • Loss of respect for British military
  • Colonists not getting enough respect
  • Thought they should be on their own
issues behind the revolution
Issues Behind the Revolution
  • Changing British Policy
    • Proclamation of 1763
      • NA worried about British farmers
      • destroyed land
      • Unlike French British hated NAs
      • Stopped dealing with them
proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763
  • King George closed area west of colonies
  • 1764-1766 Peace treaties with tribes
  • Colonists continued to settle
sugar act of 1764
Sugar Act of 1764
  • Cut duty on foreign molasses in half
  • Raised the tax
  • Hoped people would buy foreign molasses and pay tax rather than smuggleEnforcement
    • Ships could be seized if though smuggling
    • Judges got 5% commission if ship found guilty
quartering act of 1765
Quartering Act of 1765
  • Colonies had to provide shelter and food for British soldiers
  • Colonists very angry but went along
the stamp act crisis
The Stamp Act Crisis
  • What is the Stamp Act?
    • Stamp Act – tax on anything on paper
    • Royal stamp to prove tax paid
stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress
  • Outrage was widespread and extreme
  • Affected everyone
  • October 1765
  • Delegates from 9 colonies met in New York
  • Leader – James Otis, lawyer from Massachusetts
  • Taxation without representation
  • Sent petitions to the king about rights
sons of liberty
Sons of Liberty
  • Boycott of British goods
  • Boycott – refusal to buy certain products as act of protest
  • Groups known as Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Founder – Samuel Adams
  • Went to stamp distributers homes – resign or house burned
  • Eventually no one left to sell stamps
  • 1766 – Act was repealed
the townshend acts
The Townshend Acts
  • 1767 –Put duty on things like glass and tea
  • New finance minister Charles Townshend
  • Raised duties rather than taxes = safer
  • Colonists still upset about taxes with no rep.
  • Boycott again
the boston massacre
The Boston Massacre
  • British troops sent to deal with violence in Boston
  • March 5, 1770
  • Small crowd threw snowballs at troops
  • Troops killed 5
  • Crispus Attucks – 1st African American to die in Rev.
  • Next day, 9 British charged with murder
  • John Adams defended them
  • 7 found not guilty, 2 guilty of lesser crimes
  • Punishment – Branded thumbs
  • Parliament cancelled Townshend Act but kept tea tax
the boston tea party
The Boston Tea Party
  • May 1773 – Tea Act to help British East India Company
  • BEIC didn’t have to pay taxes
  • Made it cheaper than smuggled tea
  • Some harbors wouldn’t let ships in
  • December 16, 1773
  • Colonists disguised as Indians boarded three ships
  • Broke open every crate and threw in the water
the intolerable acts
The Intolerable Acts
  • Spring 1774 – punishment for Tea Party
  • Harsh laws that were ridiculous
  • Limited town meetings to once a year
  • Colonies called for group of people to fight back
  • First Continental Congress formed
the first continental congress
The First Continental Congress
  • September 5, 1774
  • 56 delegates in Philadelphia
  • Founder Fathers
  • Renewed boycotts and create militias
  • Direct appeal to King
  • Left October 26, met again in spring if issues not resolved
fighting at lexington and concord
Fighting at Lexington and Concord
  • Groups of fighters called Patriots
  • Massachusetts Militia created stockpile of weapons in Concord
  • April 18, 1775, British marched to get supply
  • Patriots found out and Paul Revere and two other rode to tell

In Lexington, fighting took minutes, 18 Americans dead or wounded

  • Destroyed some of supply in Concord, left for Boston
  • 4000 Patriots stood in their way
  • Shot at them from behind walls and buildings
  • 240 British killed/wounded
  • Became first battle of Revolutionary War
declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence
  • The Delegates
    • Second Continental Congress met in May 1776
    • Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, John Hancock
    • Divided between solution and independence
    • Olive Branch Petition
      • Wanted Peaceful solution
      • End fighting and stay loyal to Britain
      • Denied
    • June 1776 – wrote Declaration of Independence
    • Thomas Jefferson wrote most the document
    • List of reasons for leaving and why
drafting a declaration
Drafting a Declaration
  • Jefferson influenced by the Enlightenment of 1700s
  • Science and Reason were keys to improved society
  • Used John Locke’s ideas for government
the declaration was adopted
The Declaration was Adopted
  • July 4, 1776
  • Delegates approved Declaration
fighting for independence
Fighting for Independence
  • The Siege of Boston
    • Patriots surrounded Boston for protection
    • Others attacked British forts to get supplies
    • General Thomas Gage in charge of British forces
battle of bunker hill
Battle of Bunker Hill
  • June 17, 1775 – Gage wants hills for lookouts
  • Attacked in tight blocks, easy target for muskets
  • Retreated and attacked again, retreated, attacked a 3rd time
  • Able to take Breed’s Hill b/c Patriots ran out of ammo
  • Forced Patriots off Bunker Hill as well
  • Half of British 2400 died, only 400 Patriots
the british leave boston
The British Leave Boston
  • July 1775 – George Washington put in charge of newly named Continental Army
  • January 1776 – Gen Knox brought cannons to south of Boston
  • Fired on British and their ships in the harbor
  • British flee with 1000 loyalists (people still devout to England)
strengths and weaknesses
Strengths and Weaknesses
  • The British
    • Well equipped, disciplined and trained
    • Supported by best navy in the world
    • Loyalists and some NAs helped fight
    • Hired 30000 mercenaries to fight
    • Mercenary – paid foreign soldiers
    • Called Hessians (German)
    • Problem – war not popular in England
    • Citizens resented the taxes
    • Troops had to fight in hostile territory
the americans
The Americans
  • Fighting on their own territory
  • Officers familiar with successful fighting tactics
  • Lacked equipment and stable fighting force
fighting in the north new york
Fighting in the North – New York
  • British won many battles
  • Washington wanted a spy
  • Nathan Hale crossed lines and got information
  • Caught before he could give information
  • Hung – Famous Last words

“I regret that I have but one life to give for my country.”

retreat from new york
Retreat from New York
  • British took NY, pushed Patriots to Penn.
  • Troops deserted and Washington thought army was falling apart
  • Thomas Paine wrote “The Crisis” to get people back on board
trenton and princeton
Trenton and Princeton
  • Washington had to be creative due to lack of everything
  • Fought during winter
  • Battle of Trenton – crossed Delaware River and captured entire Hessian force
  • Did same thing at Princeton
  • British Gen. Cornwallis saw troops coming but were pushed back
  • Patriot morale went up due to wins
financing the war
Financing the War
  • Had no money and couldn’t require taxes since their was not yet a government
  • Asked for help from colonies
  • Issued paper money to buy supplies
  • Nothing to back it up, if lost – money was worthless
  • Fighting in the West
    • Col. George Rogers Clark fought and won in IN/IL
    • Claimed the Ohio River for Patriots
  • Fighting in the South
    • Worst fighting happened in South
    • Loyalist vs. Patriots
    • Several battles lead by British Gen Cornwallis
    • Retreated to Yorktown on a peninsula
    • Patriots blocked way out
victory at yorktown
Victory at Yorktown
  • French and Continental Army combined
  • Bombarded Yorktown with ammunition
  • Escape was impossible
  • Cornwallis surrenders on October 19, 1781
treaty of paris1
Treaty of Paris
  • England, France, Spain, US
  • 1783
  • US becomes independent
  • Canadian boarder set
  • Mississippi sets boarder between colonies and Spanish territory
  • Florida given back to Spain
  • England removes all troops
  • Pledged to not harm any Loyalists (did anyway!)
early governments
Early Governments
  • People believed they were citizens of states – not a country
  • Did not want a central government
articles of confederation
Articles of Confederation
  • 1777 – Continental Congress adopted the articles
  • Approved in 1781
  • Established a limited national government
  • Most power lay with the states
  • One branch – legislative (Congress)
  • Congress did job of all three branches (Executive/Judicial)
  • States maintained own courts
  • As many delegates as state wanted but only one vote
  • Laws required 9 of 13 to pass
opposing the articles
Opposing the Articles
  • Economic Problems
        • Wealthy worried too much power for people
        • 1786 – National Debt $50 million
        • Printed more money with no backing
        • Each state had own money
        • States taxed each other
concerns about weak government
Concerns About Weak Government
  • 1780s = Nationalist immerged
  • wanted to strengthen national government
  • Washington, Madison, Hamilton
  • Needed strong government and courts
  • People didn’t agree
  • Thought articles were doing their job

Learning from History

    • Men were well educated
    • Knew European countries had tried and failed
  • Annapolis Convention
    • 1786 – Nationalist Convention
    • Plan to regulate interstate and foreign trade
    • Did not address AOC weaknesses
    • 12 men from five states
    • Set up 1787 convention in Philadelphia
shay s rebellion
Shay’s Rebellion
  • People who gave money for war wanted it back
  • Mass. – heavies direct tax had to be paid in specie
  • Specie – gold or sliver coin
  • Farmers couldn’t afford it and complained
  • State refused to repeal
  • Daniel Shay, war vet and farmer
  • 1786- lead rebellion to tax
  • Drove off collectors, protested, riots
  • State had no money to fight them until 1787
  • Rebels left for Vermont or NY
  • Shay and others were caught, but freed eventually
shay s rebellion effects
Shay’s Rebellion - Effects
  • People determination against authority
  • Need to strengthen national government to avoid civil unrest
constitutional convention
Constitutional Convention
  • Convention Assembles
    • Constitutional Convention – meeting of May 1787
    • In Philadelphia
    • 55 delegates from all but Rhode Island
    • Ages 27-81, rich to middle class
fathers of the constitution
Fathers of the Constitution
    • James Madison (36)
    • Attended every meeting and took notes
    • Spent year before learning history, law, government
    • Drew on Enlightenment thinkers
    • Believed a Constitution was best
  • Division at the Convention
    • 1st act – George Washington elected president of convention
    • Unanimous vote
    • Divided – amend AOC or new document
virginia plan
Virginia Plan
  • Bicameral – two houses
  • Representation – by population or financial support
  • Representatives
    • Lower house – popular vote
    • Upper House – nominated
  • Popular among larger state
new jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
  • One house
  • Representation – equal for each state
  • Representatives – elected by state legislature
  • Popular among little states
reaching agreements
Reaching Agreements
  • The Great Compromise
    • Introduced by Connecticut
    • Took from both
    • Bicameral
    • Representation
      • Two houses
      • Senate – two regardless of size
      • House of Representatives – based on population
    • Approved on July 16th, 1787
three fifths compromise
Three Fifths Compromise
  • Dealt with slavery
  • Southern states wanted to use slaves for representation numbers
  • Northern states with few slaves didn’t like this
  • Formula made for population count
  • Three fifths compromise – 3 of 5 slaves would count toward population
  • Didn’t let slaves vote or have rights (NA too)
a lasting document
A Lasting Document
  • Final draft approves September 17, 1787
  • Hasn’t changed much in 200 years
  • Specific but flexible
  • Only 27 changes (Amendments)
ratifying the constitution
Ratifying the Constitution
  • The Federalist View
    • To become law, 9 of 13 had to ratify
    • Ratify - approve
    • Those who favored called Federalists
    • Wrote “The Federalist Papers” 85 essays supporting
    • Explains the new government and why each part is good
    • Federal government was only slightly more powerful than states
anti federalist views
Anti-Federalist Views
  • People who opposed Constitution
  • Posed a threat to state and individual rights
  • Seen as a betrayal of the Revolution
  • Federal Government was going to rule peoples lives
  • Uneasy about taxes
  • Feared loss of liberty again
why the federalist won
Why the Federalist Won
  • Submitted on September 28, 1787
  • Federalists campaigned to get Constitution ratified
  • Drew on idea that the AOC had many problems
  • All Federalists were behind the Constitution, AFs didn’t have plan
  • Well organized and communicated
  • George Washington was Federalist
  • Everyone expected him to be the first president
  • Good leader, intelligent, gave up army voluntarily
  • Small states ratified first – most to gain
  • May 1790 – Rhode Island – last of 13 to ratify
the bill of rights
The Bill of Rights
  • Protecting Individual Rights
    • Clear declaration of rights
    • September 1789 – James Madison offers BOR
    • Took effect December 15, 1791
the ten amendments
The Ten Amendments
  • 1 Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly & petition
  • 2 Right to bear arms
  • 3 No quartering of soldiers in private homes
  • 4 No unreasonable search and seizure
  • 5 Double Jeopardy, Taking of private land, Self-incrimination
  • 6 Fair and speedy trial
  • 7 Right to a jury trial
  • 8 No cruel and unusual punishment and excessive bail
  • 9 People have more rights than the ones listed
  • 10 Power not given to the Federal government go to state or people

Against the Bill of Rights

    • Federalist saw no need for these
    • Saw it unnecessary to state these rights
    • “people surrender nothing”
  • For the Bill of Rights
    • Anti-federalist needed clarification
    • Used to restrain the Federal government
    • Jefferson wanted a list of “unalienable rights”
    • Wanted clear, detailed language
    • Compromise worked, passed
the new government
The New Government
  • The New Leaders
    • April 30, 1789 – Washington inaugurated
    • Inauguration – Official swearing in
    • Won in unanimous vote
    • John Adams – vice president
    • Started choose cabinet (Leaders of major departments)
secretary of state jefferson
Secretary of State Jefferson
  • Had been Governor of Virginia and Ambassador to France
  • Became involved in Domestic affairs
  • Federalist with liberal views
  • Well educated and sense of duty made him good politician
  • Choose because he knew France well and was trusted
treasury secretary hamilton
Treasury Secretary Hamilton
  • Well educated, leader in army
  • Headed largest department of federal government
  • Believed the government could accomplish anything
  • Things went smoothly for first few years
  • Economy got better
washington s government
Washington’s Government
  • Large and small problems faced by Washington
  • Set many precedents
  • Example: Mr. President
  • Office was made for him
  • Was surrounded by much ceremony
  • Won reelection – 2nd term was very hard
  • Set the standard for presidency
planning a capital city
Planning a Capital City
  • New York and Philadelphia served as capitals
  • Residence Act of 1790 set aside 10 square mile area
  • Between Maryland and Virginia – not in a state
  • Run by the Federal Government
  • Benjamin Banneker (AA mathematician and inventor) and Pierre-Charles L’Enfant (French artist)
  • Created plans for buildings, White House, Capital, streets and parks
  • Originally District of Columbia
  • Added Washington after GW died in 1799