Sentence Structure Chapter 7 pages 184 - 199
What is structure? • The structure of a sentence refers to the number and kinds of clauses it contains. • Clause • a group of words that has a subject and a verb • May or may not express a complete thought
An independent clause has subject, verb and can stand alone as a sentence because it expresses a complete thought. • A subordinate clause has a subject, verb and can’t stand alone as a sentence because it expresses a complete thought.
4 Sentence Structures • Simple • Compound • Complex • Compound-Complex
Simple Sentence • Contains one independent clauses and no subordinate clauses The hairstylist gave Laura a new look. Ernie has volunteered to organize the recycling campaign.
Simple Sentence • A simple sentence may contain a compound subject, compound verb, and one or more phrases. Beth and Sheila won Olympic medals. Lawrence caught the ball but then dropped it The astronomer and her assistant studied the meteor and wrote reports. Both of the scientists on the expedition stood still, waiting for the jungle cats to move away.
Compound Sentence • A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses. • The independent clauses are usually joined by a comma and coordinating conjunction: and, but, for, nor, or, so or yet. • Independent clauses in a compound sentence may also be joined by a semicolonor by a semicolon, conjunctive adverb, and a comma.
Compound Sentences • Betsy Ross made our first flag, but little evidence supports this claim. • The whistle blew, the drums rolled, and the crowed cheered. • Albert led for half the distance, and then Jared took the lead.
Compound Sentences • Many mathematical concepts originated in North Africa; the ancient Egyptians used these concepts in building pyramids. • Lynn called Marty with the good news; however, he was not at home.
Compound Sentences Conjunctive Adverbs – page 376
Complex Sentence • Contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause. • Independent clauses may be interrupted by subordinate clause • Subordinate clauses may appear at the beginning, in the middle, or a the end of a complex sentence.
Complex Sentence • When I watch Martha Graham’s performances, I feel like studying dance. • In Gone with the Wind, when Scarlett is faced with near starvation, she vows that she never will be hungry again. • All of the stars that we can see without a telescope are part of the Milky Way galaxy.
Compound-Complex Sentences • Contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause. • Yolanda began painting only two years ago, but already she has been asked to show one of her paintings at the exhibit that is scheduled for May.
Compound-Complex Sentences • When Bill left, he locked the door, but he forgot to turn off the lights. • Emily has several hobbies that she enjoys, but the one on which she spends the most time is woodworking.