Measurements

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# Measurements - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Measurements. Density. Density. Density compares the mass of an object to its volume D = mass = g or g volume mL cm 3 Note: 1 mL = 1 cm 3. EXAMPLE 1.

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Density

Density compares the mass of an object to its volume

D = mass = g or g

volume mL cm3

Note: 1 mL = 1 cm3

EXAMPLE 1

Osmium is a very dense metal. What is its density in g/cm3 if 50.00 g of the metal occupies a volume of 2.22cm3?

D = m / V

a) 2.25 g/cm3

b) 22.5 g/cm3

c) 111 g/cm3

SOLUTION 1

b) Placing the mass and volume of the osmium metal into the density setup, we obtain

D = m = 50.00 g =

V 2.22 cm3

= 22.522522 g/cm3 = 22.5 g/cm3

Volume Displacement

A solid displaces a matching volume of water when the solid is placed in water.

33 mL

25 mL

EXAMPLE 2

What is the density (g/cm3) of 48 g of a metal if the metal raises the level of water in a graduated cylinder from 25 mL to 33 mL?

33 mL

25 mL

SOLUTION 2

Volume (mL) of water displaced

= 33 mL - 25 mL = 8 mL

Volume of metal (cm3)

= 8 mL x 1 cm3 = 8 cm3

1 mL

Density of metal =

mass = 48 g = 6 g/cm3

volume 8 cm3

EXAMPLE 3

Which diagram represents the liquid layers in the cylinder?

(K) Karo syrup (1.4 g/mL), (V) vegetable oil (0.91 g/mL,) (W) water (1.0 g/mL)

1) 2) 3)

K

W

V

V

W

K

W

V

K

SOLUTION 3

(K) Karo syrup (1.4 g/mL), (V) vegetable oil (0.91 g/mL,) (W) water (1.0 g/mL)

1)

V

W

K

EXAMPLE 4

The density of octane, a component of gasoline, is 0.702 g/mL. What is the mass, in kg, of 875 mL of octane?

m

D

V

SOLUTION 4

Unit plan:

solve for mass in g

then convert to kg

Setup:

875 mL x

m

= 614 g

0.702 g/mL =

614.25 g

V

D

1 kg

1000 g

614 g x

= 0.614 kg

EXAMPLE 5

If blood has a density of 1.05 g/mL, how many liters of blood are donated if 575 g of blood are given?

SOLUTION 5

Unit Plan:

solve for volume in mL

then convert to L

575 g .

= 547.619 mL

= 548 mL

m

1.05 g/mL

1 L .

1000 mL

548 mL x

V

D

= 0.548 L

EXAMPLE 6

You have 3 metal samples. Which one will displace the greatest volume of water?

A B C

Discuss your choice with another student.

25 g Al

2.70 g/mL

45 g of gold

19.3 g/mL

75 g of Lead

11.3 g/mL

SOLUTION 6

B

C

A

25 g Al

2.70 g/mL

45 g of gold

19.3 g/mL

75 g of Lead

11.3 g/mL

mass

density

= 9.3 mL

= 2.3 mL

= 6.6 mL