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Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition. Chapter 5: Business Software. Objectives. Explain the difference between application software and system software Enumerate the different generations of programming languages and explain how they differ

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objectives
Objectives
  • Explain the difference between application software and system software
  • Enumerate the different generations of programming languages and explain how they differ
  • Cite the latest major developments in application and system software
  • Identify and explain the roles of Web programming languages

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Explain the types and uses of Web site design tools
  • Clarify the differences between proprietary software and open source software
  • List characteristics that are important in evaluating packaged software applications for business use
  • Understand the problem of software piracy and how it affects businesses and consumers

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

software instructions to the hardware
Software: Instructions to the Hardware
  • Applications: computer programs that contribute to productivity
  • Software: a series of instructions to a computer to execute processes
  • Two major categories of software:
    • Application software: enables task completion
    • System software:
      • Enables applications to run on a computer
      • Manages components and devices

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

programming languages and software development tools
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools
  • Programs are needed for every computer operation
  • Programming: process of writing programs
  • Machine language: the only language that hardware understands
    • Consists of long strings of 0s and 1s
  • Assembly language: easier to program than machine language because it uses words for commands
  • High-level programming languages: use English-like statements

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

programming languages and software development tools continued
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)
  • Software development tools: develop software with little knowledge of programming languages
  • Third-generation languages (3GLs):known as “procedural” languages
    • Programmer must detail logical procedure
    • Includes languages such as COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, RPG, Pascal, and C
    • One 3GL statement = five to 10 assembly language statements

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

programming languages and software development tools continued7
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)
  • Fourth-generation languages (4GLs):use more English-like statements
    • Speed up the development process
    • Built around database management systems
    • Include many preprogrammed procedures
    • One 4GL statement = several 3GL statements
  • Debugging: process of locating and fixing program errors

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

programming languages and software development tools continued9
Programming Languages and Software Development Tools (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

visual programming
Visual Programming
  • Visual programming languages: create graphical screen objects by selecting icons from a palette
  • Common visual programming languages include:
    • Microsoft Visual Basic
    • Borland Delphi
    • Micro Focus COBOL
    • ASNA Visual RPG
    • Visual C++
  • Developer can still work at the code level

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

visual programming continued
Visual Programming (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

object oriented programming
Object-Oriented Programming
  • Object-oriented programming (OOP): modular approach to programming
  • Advantages:
    • Ease of maintenance
    • Efficiency in application development
  • Object: contains data elements (data members) and the methods to manipulate that data
    • Data members can only be accessed through the object’s methods

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

object oriented programming continued
Object-Oriented Programming (continued)
  • Objects are reusable and are combined to create complex programs
  • Popular OOP languages include Smalltalk, C++, Object Pascal, and Java
  • Increasing amount of software developed for the Web using languages such as Java, JavaScript, J2EE, and PHP
  • Applet: code produced by a Web programming language
    • Runs same way on different operating systems

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

object oriented programming continued14
Object-Oriented Programming (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

language translation compilers and interpreters
Language Translation: Compilers and Interpreters
  • Source code: program as originally written by the developer
  • Object code: program in machine language that can be run by the computer
  • Procedural languages need programs to translate source code to object code
  • Two types of language translators:
    • Compilers
    • Interpreters

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

language translation compilers and interpreters continued
Language Translation: Compilers and Interpreters (continued)
  • Compiler: translates entire source code to object code but does not execute the code
    • Scans for syntax errors
    • Generates error messages if syntax errors found
  • Interpreter: scans one statement at a time
    • If error-free, interprets and executes the statement
    • Goes through the program until an error or end of program is encountered

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

language translation compilers and interpreters continued17
Language Translation: Compilers and Interpreters (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

application software
Application Software
  • Application software allows nonprogrammers to develop their own tools
  • Application-specific software: programs designed to perform specific jobs
  • General-purpose application software: programs that serve multiple purposes
    • Usually comes as packaged software
  • Packaged software: software that is ready to install from external storage media such as CDs

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

office productivity applications
Office Productivity Applications
  • Productivity tools: assist normal office work
    • Include word processors, spreadsheets, presentation tools, file/database software, graphics programs, desktop publishing tools, and project management applications
  • Word processors: used to create text documents
  • Spreadsheets: store numbers and perform complex mathematical, statistical, and financial analysis functions

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

office productivity applications continued
Office Productivity Applications (continued)
  • Presentation tools: develop impressive presentations quickly
  • File/database management tools: create and manipulate local or shared databases
  • Graphics programs: create intricate graphical images and manipulate digital photographs
  • Desktop publishing tools: develop items for publication, such as pamphlets, newsletters, cards, calendars, etc.

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

office productivity applications continued21
Office Productivity Applications (continued)
  • Project management tools: help plan projects and track progress
  • Suite: collection of various applications that perform multiple interrelated functions
    • Includes Microsoft Office, Lotus SmartSuite, OpenOffice.org, ThinkFree

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

hypermedia and multimedia
Hypermedia and Multimedia
  • Hypermedia: a feature that enables users to access information by clicking text or graphics
  • Web page authoring tools: enable hypermedia features
    • Often part of other applications such as word processors and presentation tools

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

hypermedia and multimedia continued
Hypermedia and Multimedia (continued)
  • Multimedia software: handles many different types of data
  • Often used in:
    • Education: lessons presented in multimedia
    • Training exercises
    • Compiling and integrating data for business situations

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

mashups
Mashups
  • Mashup: an integrated application containing some or all features from several applications
    • Provides enhanced features for the end user
  • Web site design tools: used to change the content of Web pages
    • Includes FrontPage, SharePoint Designer, Expression Web from Microsoft, Adobe Dreamweaver, and GoLive

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

groupware
Groupware
  • Groupware: an application that enables workers to collaborate in real time over Web
    • Integration of multimedia technology and Web technology
    • Allows for remote collaboration
    • Eliminates travel times and facilitates expression and exchange of ideas

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

virtual reality
Virtual Reality
  • Virtual reality (VR): an application that mimics sensory reality using software
    • Simulates sight, hearing, and touch
    • Uses equipment such as goggles, gloves, earphones, and moving bases
  • VR devices provide two elements:
    • Immersion: user senses that she/he is surrounded by the simulated environment
    • Interaction: allows users to simulate changes in the environment using VR devices

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

virtual reality continued
Virtual Reality (continued)
  • VR environment senses movement, responds to signals, and provides feedback to user
  • Businesses use VR to decrease cost of planning buildings, machines, and vehicles
  • Avatar: an imaginary figure used to represent real person
  • VR on the Web includes public gathering applications
    • Second Life: an imaginary world using avatars to allow real people to meet and communicate

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

3d geographic software
3D Geographic Software
  • Similar to virtual reality
  • Used to develop three-dimensional models of geographic locations
  • Models are created from land and aerial photographs
  • Helps with navigation when tied to global positioning system software
  • Useful for city planners, service agencies, tourism, and travel agencies

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

system software
System Software
  • System software: deals with essential operations between the user and computer such as:
    • Loading, copying, and deleting files
    • Managing memory resources
    • Operating peripheral equipment
    • Encompasses compilers and interpreters
  • Applications must be compatible with system software

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems
Operating Systems
  • Operating system (OS): most important program on the computer
    • Recognizes input from keyboard and mouse
    • Sends output to computer display
    • Keeps track of files and directories
    • Runs applications
    • Manages memory
  • Usually developed using low-level programming languages such as assembly languages
  • Also known as “platforms”

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Application program interfaces (APIs):software included in the OS that can be used by application program developers
  • Utilities: perform other OS functions such as:
    • Hardware diagnostics
    • Disk check
    • File sorting

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued33
Operating Systems (continued)
  • OS’s position in logical operation of the computer:
    • User interacts with user interface using menus, icons, and application commands
    • Application converts user input into OS commands
    • OS commands the CPU to carry out the operation

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued34
Operating Systems (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued35
Operating Systems (continued)
  • OS must manage the system by allocating hardware resources to applications
  • OS provides several services, including:
    • User interface
    • Memory allocation, including the use of virtual memory (hard disk used as an extension of RAM)
    • Plug-and-play (PnP): recognize and run a device as soon as it is physically attached

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued36
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Driver: software that enables OS to control a device
  • Additional OS services include:
    • Database management
    • Networking
    • Security
  • Different computers and types of microprocessors use different OSs

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued37
Operating Systems (continued)
  • Popular PC operating systems
    • Windows XP and Windows Vista
    • Linux
    • Mac OS
  • Popular network OSs that are compatible with DOS, Windows, and MAC clients include:
    • Netware
    • Windows Server
  • Linux: a free OS based on UNIX

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

operating systems continued38
Operating Systems (continued)

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

other system software
Other System Software
  • Other types of system software include:
    • Compilers and interpreters
    • Communications software
    • Utilities
    • Database management systems
  • Communications software: supports transmission and reception of data across computer networks
  • Utilities include antivirus programs, firewalls, and antispyware/antiadware programs

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

open source software
Open Source Software
  • Proprietary software: sold/licensed for profit
    • Source code is private and not available
    • Developer retains all rights to the software; user purchases a license to use the software
  • Open source software: free source code
    • Developed through voluntary collaboration of programmers
    • Fewer bugs because many programmers review the code
  • Popular open source software includes Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird, MySQL, and PERL

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

open source software continued
Open Source Software (continued)
  • Not all free software is open source
    • Microsoft Internet Explorer is free but proprietary
  • Linux: best known open source OS
    • Includes free versions and versions that charge for support and additional features
    • Popular because of its versatility, but has limited number of applications that run on it
    • Runs on mainframes, PCs, handhelds, and electronic devices

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

software licensing
Software Licensing
  • Software is usually licensed
  • Licensed software: provides limited permission to use the software
    • Time-limited license requires annual fees
  • Several licensing models
    • Permissive model:anyone can use and sell modified versions of the software
    • General public license (GPL):anyone can use and make modified versions, but cannot sell modified versions for profit

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

considerations for packaged software
Considerations for Packaged Software
  • Many goals and custom requirements are considered during development process of in-house software
  • Factors when purchasing large software packages are more complex, including:
    • Cost
    • Time to implement
    • Cost of interrupting operations
    • Modification costs to customize the software

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

summary
Summary
  • Software: a collective term for computer programs
  • Two categories of software: system or application
  • Programming languages and software development tools are used to develop software
  • Increasing amount of software is linked to the Internet
  • Code written in non-machine language must be translated by compilers or interpreters

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Some application programs are custom designed, and many are packaged
  • Office productivity tools such as word processors and spreadsheets help improve worker efficiency
  • Hypermedia and multimedia technology are useful for training, education, research, and business

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

summary continued47
Summary (continued)
  • Groupware combines hypermedia and multimedia with Web technologies for collaboration
  • Virtual reality tools help build models of products and structures
  • Three-dimensional geographic software helps model maps and locations
  • Many applications support Web services and access to information on the Web

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition

summary continued48
Summary (continued)
  • Most important system software is operating system
  • Open source software is distributed freely via the Web
  • Software is either purchased or licensed
  • Purchase decisions should evaluate suitability, ease of learning, ease of use, vendor reputation, expected quality of vendor support
  • Software piracy is still a significant problem

Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition