Science Tools, Data Tables, Graphs & Conclusions. Many of the things we do in science involve measuring and handling data…. We use various tools and devices to measure different quantities. We organize data into tables to find information easily.
Science Tools, Data Tables, Graphs & Conclusions
Many of the things we do in science involve measuring and handling data…
As the temperature increases, the height of tomato plants decreases…
When we do ANY experiment, we often use some kind of tool to measure something.
All measurements have units… Units are a portion of a whole/individual thing, and always have the identical dimension.
IN ALL SCIENCE MEASUREMENTS, WE WILL USE THE METRIC UNITS, NEVER EVER THE “CUSTOMARY UNITS” LIKE HERE IN THE US!
Distance is the amount of space between any two points (length, width, height).
Mass is the amount of matter (molecules) in an object. You are more familiar with the term weight.
Triple beam balance
Volume is the amount of space an object takes up. The object or substance is usually a liquid or gas, but can also be a solid.
Time is the duration of an event.
Temperature is the speed of the molecules in a substance. But we don’t usually think about it like that. We usually think about how hot or cold an object or substance is.
Independent variable in a column on the left with the changes named, with units
Dependent variable in a row across the rest of the table with units
Trials in a row under the dependent variable
Data tables are charts that organize ALL your data in a simple, organized and easy to read way…
Data clearly listed. An average is sometimes included. You do not need units after every number!!
Graphs are picture versions of number data. They are very useful to show either patterns or trends that might not be apparent just by looking at numerical data.
You will see 3 main types of graphs in science and math during the year. Each type of graph is better suited for comparing different data.
Bar Graphs: good for comparing many different groups/things to each other
Line Graphs: good for comparing how things change as others change, especially over time
Pie/circle Graphs: good for comparing proportions of things to each other, or to the whole
Imagine you want to know how the amount of food (grams) affects the height plants will grow…
Amount of food (g)
Amount of Food (g)
Amount of Food (g)
Grams of Food vs.
Average Temperature (°C)
Average Temp (°C)
In this line graph, as time increases, the number of bacteria also increases.
Although it is a bit harder to see, in this bar graph, as speed increases, the distance also increases.
When looking at your data and graph, we can often find a pattern that describes how making a change in one variable affects another variable.
Tons of Food Produced
See if you can figure these out…
In this experiment, as time increases, the temperature decreases.
In this experiment, as the amount of food increases, the number of people decreases.
Time it Takes to Fall to ground (seconds)
Mass of an Object (g)
Pulse Rate (bpm)
Sometimes the relationship is not clear…
You can say this one a couple of ways…
…There is no relationship between the mass of an object and the time takes to fall to the ground.
…As the mass of an object increases, the time it takes to fall remains the same
The data in this graph is all over the place!! There is no clear relationship between pulse rate and age.