Chapter5 lesson 2 and 3 Where is fresh water found? What are some California water sources?
Where does fresh water come from? • What is fresh water?
Nearly 1 billion people don't have safe water to drink. A child dies every 15 seconds from a lack of clean water.1 in 4 children who die before age 5 worldwide, die of a water related disease.Children often walk miles every day to collect dirty water to drink.
Fresh Water 1) Fresh water has some dissolved salts but less salt than ocean water. 2) The water we drink is fresh water. 3) The amount of fresh water on Earth is limited and is not evenly spread over the world. 4) People should use water carefully! 5) Most of Earth’s fresh water starts as rain or snow. 6) The water from the rain and snow flow downhill and part of it goes in the ground.
About 7/10ths of Earth’s fresh water is frozen into ice and hard for people to use! Most of Earth’s ice is in Antarctica and Greenland. Glaciers form when the amount of snow that falls is greater than the amount of snow that melts.
Ground water is rain or melted snow that soaks into the ground. Aquiferis the layer of rock and soil that the groundwater flows through. Water table is the top level of groundwater in the aquifer. It gets higher with rains and snow and lower with droughts. Some people get their water from wells that go into the aquifer.
Water shed -Water from rain and melting snow flow downhill. -The water makes small creeks and join together to make streams and rivers. -The area near a river, where all the water drains into the river is thewatershed.
Reservoir A lake forms when water collects in a low place that has higher land around it. A reservoir is an artificial lake that forms behind a dam.
Water! • Some people get water from groundwater. • Some towns have surface water, but it can have bacteria. • Water is treated before people use it!
When water is treated it is pumped from a lake or river. Chemicals are added to make small particles stick to larger ones that sink! Chemical can be: Chlorine to kill bacteria
California’s water • Different areas of California get different amounts of rain. • The northern coast gets more rain than the deserts. • Fresh water comes from rain or snow. • Southern California is dry, so it is hard to get enough rain! • The southern coast of California receives drinking water from through a system of aqueducts because it is dry!
Aqueducts Many Californian’s get water from Aqueducts. Aqueducts are a system of pipes that carry water from rivers or lakes to places that need water.
Los Angles Aqueduct • First part of system was build 100 years ago. Carries water from Owens River in Sierra Nevada.1970 second aqueduct was built.
The Colorado River Aqueduct • Brings water to the City of San Diego. • The Aqueduct carries water to Lake Mathews in Riverside County and then to San Diego.
Water Shed: The land that water flows across or under on its way to a river, lake or ocean. The amount of water in a watershed depends on how much water is used and collected. Reclamation: Water can be recycled and used again. The water (wastewater) is treated, but people cannot drink it, people can use it to water crops and lawn.
Rancho California Water District RCWD water comes from a variety of natural sources. Our natural sources include precipitation, surface stream flows and regional groundwater (aquifers). RCWD also purchases water from Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. This agency imports water from Northern California and the Colorado River. Water delivered to homes and businesses is a blend of well water (25 percent) and import water (70 percent). Water recycling which produces highly treated wastewater is used to irrigate some golf courses and large landscaped areas. Thirsty Southern California is using more and more recycled water for irrigation in order to save its precious well water and import water for drinking and household use. The RCWD managed groundwater basins are estimated to hold over 2 million acre-feet of water. The annual safe yield of these basins is approximately 30,000 acre-feet per year, which meets nearly half of the District's needs. Most of the remaining water demands are met with imported water purchased from Metropolitan Water District of Southern California. RCWD is also continuing to develop more use of reclaimed water for irrigation purposes. Surface water from Vail Lake is used to help replenish our groundwater supplies through recharge operations. Aquifers All aquifers managed by the District are located in the Santa Margarita Watershed. Oversight of all groundwater production within the Santa Margarita Watershed falls under the continuing jurisdiction of the United States District Court, San Diego and is administered under the auspices of a court appointed watermaster (the "Santa Margarita Watermaster"). An acre-foot equals about 326,000 gallons, or enough water to cover an acre of land about the size of a football field, one foot deep. An average California household uses between one-half and one acre-foot of water per year for indoor and outdoor use. Much of California's water is stored as snow in the Sierra Nevada mountains.The RCWD Consumer Confidence Report is published annually. It typically provides information about where your water comes from, what it contains and other general public consumer information
Key terms • Sea level • Salinity • Aquifer • Water table • Watershed • Reservoir • Aqueduct • reclamation
Test your knowledge! • Water can leave a lake and flow into the ground or evaporate into the air. T/F? • Name one chemical that is added to kill bacteria in water. • A measure of the amount of salt in water is called___? • What percent of water is outside of the oceans? • Water cannot be evaporated from the ocean. T/F • There is plenty of fresh water, and you can waste as much water as you want. T/F?
7) A system of pipelines that carry water from a river or lake to the area where it is needed is called_________? 8) Water can be recycled and used again in a process called _________? 9) A layer of rock or soil through which groundwater flows is_______? 10) The area from which water drains into a river is_______?
Homework • Write a letter to your family and neighbors in which you explain the facts you learned about fresh water as evidence to convince them to conserve fresh water. • Questions to consider: What do you think will happen if we continue to use fresh water at this rate? • Is it fair that some people have limited water and have to drink contaminated water?