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A Course Designed to Save Firefighters Lives

A Course Designed to Save Firefighters Lives

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A Course Designed to Save Firefighters Lives

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  1. Firefighter Survival Course A Course Designed to Save Firefighters Lives

  2. Course Introduction • Instructors • Lt. Rodney Smith • Lt. Don Gibson • FF Chad Chadwick • Program Goals • Orientation to concepts of self rescue and rapid intervention • Review of actual scenarios • Practical experience • Train the Trainer focus Firefighter Survival Course

  3. “Saving Our Own” This course was developed by the Illinois Fire Service Institute. The course was taught by members of the Chicago and Schaumburg Fire Department members. This was initially a 16 hour “train the trainer” course taught to members of Fire Departments through-out the United States. The course can be modified to meet the needs of your local Fire Department. Additional components of this course should be incorporated into future training sessions. Firefighter Survival Course

  4. Classroom Understand the concepts of self-rescue Understand the process of rapid intervention teams Understand the responsibilities of the RIT officer and team members Identify some of the basic tools required for SR and RIT Practical Exercises Self-Rescue Techniques Size-up for RIT Rapid Intervention Scenarios Course Objectives Firefighter Survival Course

  5. Course Objectives At the end of this training session the firefighter will be able to: • Identify factors that lead to firefighter injury and fatalities. • Identify factors that increase Firefighter Safety including: • Pass Devices • Improved communications • Fire Ground Accountability • Demonstrate basic firefighter rescue techniques. • Understand the importance of Rapid Intervention Crews Firefighter Survival Course

  6. Course References • Illinois Fire Service Institute - Saving Our Own Program • Firefighter Survival - John Sulka, FDNY • Firefighter Safety and Survival - • USFA / NIOSH /NFDC/NFPA Reports • Personal Experiences and Case Studies • Training Firefighter Survival Course

  7. Firefighter Injury Facts • Firefighter Injuries 1995 - 94,500 • 50,640 Injuries on the Fire Ground • Fatality Statistics 1997NFDC • 43.6% Fire Ground / 40 of 94 • 13 Heart Attack • 8 Asphyxiation • 7 Crushing • 5 Internal Trauma • 3 Burns • 1 Heat Stroke • 1 Drown • 1 Asthma Attack • 1 Shot 43.3% caught or trapped Firefighter Survival Course

  8. Common Factors Contributing ToFirefighter Injury & Fatality • Failure to read the building - # 1 overall factor • Lack of, or incomplete size up • Lack of knowing building construction and fire behavior • Heavy Fire on lower levels • Walk out basements • Floor weakened or holes burnt through • Communications - Information between IC & Companies • Hackensack, NJ 5 fatalities, called for help over 30 minutes, 17 minutes after collapse last call for help. • Indianapolis, called for help 7 times in 5 minutes. WHY DON’T WE HEAR? Firefighter Survival Course

  9. Common Factors in Firefighter Fatalities and Injuries • Lost or separated from team • Hotter Fires • Malfunctioning SCBA • Lack of knowledge of self-rescue techniques • Inactivated PASS device Firefighter Survival Course

  10. Common Factors Contributing ToFirefighter Injury & Fatality (Cont.) • Accountability • # 1 factor in accountability is the officer knowing where his/her people are. • 25% of all firefighter fatalities are due to a lack of accountability • Other problems • Routine Fires • Less Fires • Common factors Firefighter Survival Course

  11. Common Factors Contributing ToFirefighter Injury & Fatality (Cont.) • Hotter fires - Since 1970 fires have tripled the BTU output. • Smoke output can be as much as 20 times worse on synthetics • Iowa (Royers) L X W X H / 100 = GPM • NFA L X W / 3 = GPM • Energy Efficient Windows • Average apartment has over 2500 lbs... Of plastic • Temperature inversion at flashover - 1100 at ceiling 1700 at floor. • Deteriorating buildings • Light weight and truss construction • Light weight truss can fail as soon as 4 minutes Firefighter Survival Course

  12. Firefighter Rescue 85 - 90% of Firefighters have never practiced Firefighter Rescue Firefighter Survival Course

  13. Firefighter Rescue Basic Concepts of Firefighter Rescue “The Concept is one of Attitude” Firefighter Survival Course

  14. Firefighter Rescue Concept of Firefighter Rescue • Attitude is everything!!! • It doesn’t take a 500,000 dollar squad to begin thinking and ACTING… • Do you come dressed for the party? • Firefighters are killed surrounded by 1/2” sheetrock. • “Don’t give up! Mentality is essential!” • Who do you want coming to get you? • Rapid Intervention Crew Firefighter Survival Course

  15. Concepts of Firefighter Rescue (Cont.) • Anticipate problems - Everyone must be looking!!! • Read the building • 360 degree survey • Throw ladders • Engineers • Stand by companies • Clean out windows • Think Forcible EXIT Tools. Firefighter Survival Course

  16. Concepts of Firefighter Rescue (Cont.) • Ensure Operation of PASS when dismounting apparatus • Watch your air • Point of no return • SCBA Emergencies • Consider level of activity • Listen to the radio. (Lapel Mic’s) • Have a procedure in place today! • Communicate to IC • Declare “MayDay” w/ CO. I.D. and best known location • Activate PASS • Turn on Flash Lights • Inform IC of noises heard, ie. Saws, Fans, Crews, etc. • Tap or Beat on Surroundings Firefighter Survival Course

  17. Your Procedure • Must be basic • May in the form of a IAP • Must be familiar to all fireground companies • Dispatchers should be able to recognize emergency and activate plan. • Must provide for additional resources • Should be incorporated into training evolutions • Must be practical and provide common terminology • Discuss Air horns, Emergency traffic, Mayday…. Firefighter Survival Course

  18. Self Rescue Concepts • Before Rapid Intervention even begins, firefighters must posses the ability to begin to remove themselves from mechanisms that have trapped them • Wires • Debris • Occupancy Hose Slide Firefighter Survival Course

  19. Firefighter Rescue Scenarios Self Team assisted Quick exit using hose slide SCBA onto unconscious FF Firefighter Survival Course

  20. Skills Necessary for Self Rescue • Knowledge of Building Construction • Fire Spread and Fire Behavior • How to Call for Help • Mayday, Emergency Traffic • Where are you in building • How to find the FASTEST way out • Turnout gear protects for only seconds in flashover • Low air means time to get out • No more primary, secondary or firefighting operations Firefighter Survival Course

  21. Personal Equipment Suggested Equipment for Self-Survival Should be available to EACH firefighter Firefighter Survival Course

  22. Self Rescue Scenarios Must be able to tie handcuff knot around self or downed firefighter (RIT) Firefighter Survival Course

  23. Self Rescue Scenarios Ladder Bail-out Was ladder placed for rescue, by RIT, or for ventilation? Firefighter Survival Course

  24. Self Rescue Scenarios Getting into a safe refuge area FDNY found this most overlooked Firefighter Survival Course

  25. Self Rescue Scenarios Performed with minimum equipment Firefighter Survival Course

  26. $5.00 - $10.00 Self Rescue Scenarios Cable TV, Phone, Ceiling Support, Flex Duct Firefighter Survival Course

  27. Firefighter Survival Skills Training • Quarterly review of these lifesaving skills is a must: • Donning / Doffing of SCBA (Reduced Profile Maneuver) • Other product specific advanced SCBA techniques; quick fill • Tying of basic rescue knots • Bowline around self • Handcuff knot • Activation of RIT • Mayday or Emergency Traffic • Release from obstructions techniques • Swim Method for wire, use of sidecutters • Hose direction identification by couplings Safety and Survival Drills Firefighter Survival Course

  28. Rapid Intervention Teams Firefighter Survival Course

  29. Rapid Intervention Teams Firefighter Survival Course

  30. Cover of Trapped Firefighter Rapid Intervention Teams Firefighter Survival Course

  31. Rapid Intervention Teams Firefighter Survival Course

  32. Rapid Intervention Teams Firefighter Survival Course

  33. A function of Command Assembled in teams of 2 or more Bring rescue equipment to Command Perform own size-up of scene May do other functions as long as available immediately Most important assignment given to a company Protect and rescue firefighters Rapid Intervention TeamsBasic Concepts Firefighter Survival Course

  34. Personal Skills Required for RIT Assignment • Size-up Skills • Building Construction • Fire Spread and Behavior • Communications • Aggressive “Can-do” spirit • Use of multiple types of tools and equipment • Ability to act fast under poor conditions ATTITUDE ATTITUDE Firefighter Survival Course

  35. Team Skills Required for RIT Assignment • Must be familiar with all aspects of assignment • Fireground is not the place to learn • Preparation in training will begin process • Ability to function as a team • Identification of key tasks and positions Firefighter Survival Course

  36. NFPA Requirements for RIT Firefighter Survival Course

  37. OSHA 2 in / 2 out Compliance • A Rapid Intervention Team should fulfill the requirements as specified in the 29 CFR Part 1910.134 regulation • A minimum of four individuals is required before entry into the hazard area (interior operations) may begin • Two of the four must be present and ready outside the hazard area • Must be identically equipped • Crews in hazard area must remain in either voice, visual or tethered contact with each other at all times • Radio may not be substituted for direct visual contact Firefighter Survival Course

  38. FDNY and Philadelphia Found common denominators in many situations No quick way to mobilize firefighters to rescue our own Many names for RIT Firefighter Assist Team, Rapid Intervention Crew, Firefighter Rescue Team, etc. Idea is still the same The Beginning of Self-Rescue and RIT Firefighter Survival Course

  39. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Memphis, Tennessee Denver, Colorado Columbus, Ohio Burr Ridge, IL Other of note not included in this presentation Hackensack, NJ Seattle, WA Philadelphia, PA New York, NY Case Histories Must Know Info. Firefighter Survival Course

  40. Case Histories Pittsburgh 3 Firefighters Killed Three Pittsburgh firefighters died on Feb 14, 1995 died at a dwelling fire after they were unable to escape the interior of a building. All three firefighters were together in one room and had exhausted their air supplies. - 3 other firefighter were rescued from same room, accountability did not identify all who were lost. - All 3 had PASS devices that were not activated - No RIT available to rescue lost and trapped firefighters Firefighter Survival Course

  41. Case HistoriesMemphis High-Rise Kills 2 Firefighters 2 Memphis Firefighters will killed on April 11, 1994 in a high-rise fire. Both firefighters died when trapped on the fire floor of this building. 1 firefighter became trapped by cable TV wire which had fallen from the ceiling area and wrapped around his SCBA bottle. - Both firefighters became separated from each other and ran out of air. PASS devices were worn but never activated. - Rescue crews lacked understanding of position of trapped firefighters and crawled right past one member Firefighter Survival Course

  42. Case HistoriesDenver Office Fire Kills 1 Firefighter A Denver firefighter was killed on September 28, 1982 when he became trapped inside the structure by the failure of lightweight construction members. Numerous attempts at rescue from a confined space through a window frame were unsuccessful. - Firefighter was separated from his crew when collapse occurred. - Rescue crews were unable to assist firefighter through window. - Limited visibility and victim position were factors in the rescue attempt. Firefighter Survival Course

  43. Case HistoriesColumbus Commercial Fire Kills 1 Firefighter A firefighter was killed when he fell through a hole in the floor of a mixed commercial occupancy on July 25, 1987. This firefighter was located early into his entrapment and despite many heroic efforts to rescue him, firefighters were unable to remove him from the hole he had fallen through. - Numerous attempts to pull and lift firefighter were unsuccessful - Self-rescue techniques did not work due to altered mental status - Crews had to abandon structure with firefighter still trapped inside Firefighter Survival Course

  44. Case HistoriesPleasantview Firefighter Killed in Single Family Dwelling On December 6, 1989, Lt. Joseph Samec died while battling a residential house fire in Burr Ridge, IL. Lt. Samec and his crew tried to rapidly exit the structure due to heavy involvement of the basement when the floor collapsed. - Rescue attempts included face to face and holding of arms/hands were unsuccessful. - Lt. Samec breached two walls in his attempt to escape but failed to make the stairs and was found face down on the staircase. Firefighter Survival Course

  45. Case Studies - Summary • May Joe Samec, John Nance, Mark Langvardt, and the 100 other firefighters who have make the SUPREME SACRAFICE every year rest in peace forever. • Their memory serves as a catalyst for how and why we train • We must learn for these tragedies and every “near-miss” that occurs • We must revisit these occurrences as often as possible Firefighter Survival Course

  46. Rapid Intervention Teams • Referenced from NFPA 1500, 1992 Edition • Now in use nationwide as the ultimate in firefighter life safety procedures • Provides for the rescue of lost, trapped or injured firefighters • Allows Command to have outside tasks completed while RIT crew is in the standby mode Firefighter Survival Course

  47. Rapid Intervention Teams • Definition • RIT’s are crews of at least two members who may be called upon to supply rescue techniques to other firefighters operating a the scene of an emergency. These crews will have at least the same level of training and protective equipment as those operating at the scene. Firefighter Survival Course

  48. General Purpose of Rapid Intervention Teams • Purpose • Provide for the establishment of a Rapid Intervention Team (RIT) within the Incident Management System • Essential function of COMMAND • Allows for dedicated company assigned to this function • Meets current federal and local regulatory requirements • One of the last industries to apply rescue of our own to work place • Work Place = Emergency Scene Firefighter Survival Course

  49. When to have a Rapid Intervention Team • Utilized at any time firefighters are at risk • structural firefighting* • hazardous materials response • technical rescue • water rescue or recovery • *during attack and hazard operations Firefighter Survival Course

  50. Objectives of a Rapid Intervention Team • Objectives of RIT • Establish a means of effectively assisting members suddenly threatened by a dangerous situation at an emergency incident • Provide a means for the IC to initiate an immediate rescue effort. Firefighter Survival Course