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Prudent Thinking. Lesson on what a prudent thinker is and how to become one. Content What is the Thinking Process? What Is Prudent Thinking? What Does the Absence of Thinking Prudently Look Like? Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking

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prudent thinking

Prudent Thinking

Lesson on what a prudent thinker is and how to become one

slide2

Content

What is the Thinking Process?

What Is Prudent Thinking?

What Does the Absence of Thinking Prudently Look Like?

Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking

What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?

Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QczAdZg

slide3

What is the Thinking Process?

* Senses provide our bodies with sensations which they pick up from the outside world. These sensations are transmitted by nerves to the biological structures which will translate them.

Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QermjBc

biological
Biological
  • the sensations provided by the senses are inputted by nerves to the brain which then translates, decodes and encodes messages and sends them out through the nervous system.
psychological
Psychological
  • takes the messages from the brain and translates them into perceptions and reactions.
cognitive
Cognitive
  • translations through the biological and psychological dimensions of the thinking process of the perceptions and reactions into concepts, ideas, assumptions, suppositions, inferences, hypotheses, questions, beliefs, premises, logical arguments, etc.
communications
Communications
  • takes the messages from the brain and translates them into verbal, non-verbal and written language to communicate the thoughts and ideas which were generated.
slide8

What Is Prudent Thinking?

Prudent thinking consists of three steps:

1. Becoming aware that assumptions exist

2. Making assumptions explicit

3. Assessing their accuracy

o Do these assumptions make sense?

o Do these assumptions fit reality as we understand and live it?

o Under what conditions do these assumptions seem to hold true? Under what conditions do they seem false?

Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16Qmz59Rt

misconceptions about prudent thinking
Misconceptions About Prudent Thinking
  • It is wholly a negative process-it tears down ideas and puts nothing in their place (rather it is a positive process to put things in a more realistic perspective).
  • It will lead to relativistic freeze--the inability to make commitments to people, ideas, structures (rather. commitments are informed ones).
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QnbH5cT
misconceptions about critical thinking
Misconceptions About Critical Thinking
  • It seems to involve traumatic change-one is expected to abandon old assumptions continually. (rather: Some beliefs stay the same--they are simply more informed).
  • It is dispassionate and cold (it is rather highly emotive and liberating to be free of past assumptions and the anxiety of self-scrutiny).
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QnbH5cT
why is prudent thinking important
Why Is Prudent Thinking Important?
  • All actions, decisions and judgments spring from assumptions--if they are unchecked or inappropriate, we will make poor decisions and wrong judgments.
  • In personal relationships we learn to keep our lines of communications open-we avoid uncritically reproducing patterns of the modeled interactions we learned from our parental interaction.
  • In the workplace we avoid stagnation and atrophy and are willing to challenge the current paradigms which are uncritically accepted and may have come down in the workplace from a time and thinking which is no longer relevant to our current reality.
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QoYiDTD
what does the absence of thinking prudently look like
What Does the Absence of Thinking Prudently Look Like?
  • We blindly reproduce the damaging reactions we have learned.
  • We blindly accept at face value all justifications given by organizations and political leaders.
  • We blindly believe TV commercials.
  • We blindly trust political commercials.
  • We blindly accept and say that if the textbook says it must be so.
  • We blindly accept and say that if the organization does it must be right.
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16Qp7pQNS
what does prudent thinking look like
What Does Prudent Thinking Look Like?
  • Contextual sensitivity--being sensitive to stereotypes about people from a particular group and trying to accept others at face value unconditionally
  • Perspective thinking--trying to get into the other person's head, or walking in the other person's shoes so as to see the world the way that person sees and perceives the world.
  • Tolerance for ambiguity--ability to accept multiple interpretations of the same situation
  • Alert to premature ultimatums--invoking a powerful idea or concept which inspires such reverence that any further debate is forestalled. E.g., a politician invokes "democracy.“
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16QpszvcX
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Truth seeking: A courageous desire for the best knowledge, even if such knowledge fails to support or undermines one's preconceptions, beliefs or self-interests.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking1
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Open-mindedness: Tolerance to divergent views, self-monitoring for possible bias.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking2
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Analyticity: Demanding the application of reason and evidence, alert to problematic situations, inclined to anticipate consequences.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking3
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Self-Confidence: Trusting of one's own reasoning skills and seeing oneself as a good thinker.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking4
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Systematicity: Valuing organization, focus and diligence to approach problems of all levels of complexity.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking5
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Inquisitiveness: Curious and eager to acquire knowledge and learn explanations even when the applications of the knowledge are not immediately apparent.
characteristics of people who excel at prudent thinking6
Characteristics of People who Excel at Prudent Thinking
  • Cognitive Maturity: Prudence in making, suspending or revising judgment. An awareness that multiple solutions can be acceptable. An appreciation of the need to reach closure even in the absence of complete knowledge.
what are the major components in prudent thinking
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Perception
  • Assumptions
  • Emotion
  • Language
  • Argument
  • Fallacy
  • Logic
  • Problem Solving
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16bkjGHe1
what are the major components in prudent thinking1
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Perception
  • The way we receive and translate our experience.
  • Also a significant filtering system.
  • How we perceive defines how we think.
what are the major components in prudent thinking2
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Assumptions
  • Central to Prudent Thinking
  • Implied, not conscious of them
  • Not always bad
  • Rest on notion some ideas are obvious
  • Make us comfortable with present beliefs and shut out alternatives
what are the major components in prudent thinking3
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Emotion
  • Trying to "leave emotion out of it" is Impossible.
  • Part of everything we do and think.
  • Personal barriers are a given.
  • Prudent thinkers don't ignore or deny emotions; accept and manage them.
what are the major components in prudent thinking4
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Language
  • Thinking can't be separated from.
  • Three primary purposes: inform, persuade and explain.
  • Language denotes and connotes.
what are the major components in prudent thinking5
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Metaphors
  • Metaphors are powerful language tools that influence how we think and problem solve. Metaphors are figures of speech which can give great color and depth to our language. Metaphors can be short phrases, stories or poems. A metaphor is a verbal message which can be easily visualized by the reader or listener.
what are the major components in prudent thinking6
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Argument
  • Claim, used to persuade that something is (or not) true or should (or not) be done
  • Contains three basic elements
  • o Issue
  • o One or more reasons (premises)
  • o One or more conclusions
argument cont
Argument cont.…
  • Can be valid or invalid based on structure
  • Only premises and conclusions true or false
  • Goal of Prudent Thinking is sound arguments
  • Valid (proper structure)
  • With true premises
  • Sound argument has both: so the conclusion must be true
  • Therein the beauty and usefulness of logic
what are the major components in prudent thinking7
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Fallacy
  • Reasoning that doesn't meet criteria for sound argument is fallacious
  • Valid
  • True premises
  • Complete (all relevant information)
  • Fallacy is incorrect pattern of reasoning
  • Does not always mean conclusion is false
  • Ads and editorials
what are the major components in prudent thinking8
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Logic
  • Two methods of reasoning:
  • Deductive
  • Facts, certainty, syllogisms, validity, truth of premises sound arguments and conclusions
  • Inductive
  • Diverse facts, probabilities, generalizations, hypotheses, analogies
what are the major components in prudent thinking9
What Are the Major Components in Prudent Thinking?
  • Problem Solving
  • Understand the problem
  • Identify unknowns and knowns
  • Relationships between these (visual aids)
  • Generate strategy from step above
  • Apply and solve; repeat if necessary
requirements for effective prudent thinking
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Six Cognitive Skills
  • Interpretation
  • Analysis
  • Evaluation
  • Inference
  • Explanation
  • Self-regulation
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16bqFwG5R
requirements for effective prudent thinking1
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Interpretation
  • Comprehend and express meaning or significance of wide variety of experiences, situations, data, events, judgments, conventions, beliefs, rules, procedures or criteria.
requirements for effective prudent thinking2
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Analysis
  • Identify the intended and actual inferential relationships among statements, questions, concepts, descriptions or other forms of representation intended to express belief, judgment, experiences, reasons, information or opinion.
requirements for effective prudent thinking3
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Evaluation
  • Assess the credibility of statements or other representations which are accounts or descriptions of a person's perception, experience, situation, judgment, belief or opinion; and to assess the logical strength of the actual or intended inferential relationships among statements, descriptions, questions or other forms of representation.
requirements for effective prudent thinking4
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Inference
  • Identify and secure elements needed to draw reasonable conclusions; to form conjectures and hypotheses; to consider relevant information and to reduce the consequences flowing from data, statements, principles, evidence, judgments, beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions, questions or other forms of representation.
requirements for effective prudent thinking5
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Explanation
  • State the results of one's reasoning; justify that reasoning in terms of evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological and contextual considerations upon which one's results were based; and to present one's reasoning in the form of cogent arguments.
requirements for effective prudent thinking6
Requirements for Effective Prudent Thinking
  • Self-regulation
  • Self-consciously to monitor one's cognitive activities, the elements used in those activities and the results deduced, particularly by applying skills in analysis and evaluation to one's own inferential judgments with a view toward questions, confirming, validation or correcting either one's reasoning or results..
affective dispositions
Affective Dispositions
  • Something else is needed.
  • More to Prudent Thinking than just cognitive skills.
  • Human beings more than just thinking machines.
  • "the Prudent Spirit" (affective dispositions).
  • A probing inquisitiveness.
  • A keenness of mind.
  • A zealous dedication to reason.
  • A hunger or eagerness for reliable information.
prudent thinking is
Prudent Thinking is:
  • How you approach problems, questions and issues.
  • The best way we know to get to the truth.
  • Experts conclude: Prudent Thinking is a pervasive, purposeful human phenomenon.
  • Ideal prudent thinker characterized also by how he approaches life and living in general.
approaches to characterizing good prudent thinking
Approaches to characterizing good Prudent Thinking:
  • Inquisitiveness about wide range of issues.
  • Concern to become and stay well-informed.
  • Alertness to opportunities to use Prudent Thinking.
  • Self-confidence in one's abilities to reason.
  • Open-mindedness about divergent world views.
  • Flexibility in considering alternatives and opinions.
  • Understanding the opinions of other people.
  • Fair-mindedness in appraising reasoning.
  • Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/#ixzz16jLPJ2nL
approaches to life characterizing good critical thinking
Approaches to life characterizing good Critical Thinking:
  • Honesty in facing one's own biases, prejudices, stereotypes, egocentric and sociocentric tendencies.
  • Prudence in suspending, making, altering judgments.
  • Willingness to reconsider and revise views.
  • Clarity in stating question or concern.
  • Orderliness in working with complexity.
  • Diligence in seeking relevant information.
  • Reasonableness in selecting and applying criteria.
  • Care in focusing attention on the concern at hand.
  • Persistence through difficulties.
  • Precision to the degree permitted by subject and circumstances.
slide43

Well that wraps up the lesson for today!

Go on and be Prudent thinkers and success

will be eating our of your hands

success

works cited
Works cited
  • Sources for Pictures:
  • http://blog.hincapie.com/post/An-Explanation-of-Explaination.aspx
  • http://www.innovativelearning.com/educational_psychology/social/page3-becky.htm
  • http://psyed.org/r/mot/md/mot.html
  • http://kelseyharja.wordpress.com/
  • http://www.imagineeringezine.com/e-zine/brain.html
  • http://www.oncoursesystems.com/school/webpage.aspx?id=416870&xpage=809123
  • http://www.pnl.gov/coginformatics/
  • http://www.personalbrandingblog.com/my-personal-branding-journey-part-10-%E2%80%93-reflecting-back-and-moving-forward/
  • http://www.impactlab.net/2009/07/18/why-are-some-people-smarter-than-others/
  • http://researchers.in.th/file/sudjai/view/988
  • http://www.lacuna-hr.co.uk/communications.html
  • http://www.designblind.co.uk/http://www.designblind.co.uk/
  • http://deskofbrian.com/2010/08/seeking-the-truth-raising-incredible-kids/
  • http://www.rebelliousarabgirl.net/2009/10/30/open-your-minds-to-the-possibilities/
  • http://gfnrr-28.edu.ms/open-mind.html
  • http://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2006/12/applied-empathy-a-design-framework-for-meeting-human-needs-and-desires-1.php
  • http://www.ceppindia.org/organization.htm
  • http://www.flickr.com/groups/beautifulcapture/discuss/72157601546816958/
  • http://coachaljohnson.wordpress.com/category/self-confidence/
  • http://www.links999.net/utopia/education.html
  • http://blog.personalityone.com/emotional-maturity.html
  • http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/psychology/research-areas/cognition-perception.html
  • http://audio.pie-perceptioniseverything.com/
  • http://www.sarahleavitt.com/2007/02/
  • http://www.dailystrength.org/groups/explore-your-feelings-group/media/614185
  • http://www.thw.coventry.sch.uk/MFL/MFL.htm
  • http://blog.pappastax.com/index.php/2009/11/23/seth-godin-on-online-arguments/
  • http://www.zazzle.com/there_are_three_sides_to_any_argument_tshirt-235509692719128775
  • http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/thabitianyabwile/2010/02/09/seven-common-fallacies-in-bible-interpretation/
  • http://www.gmatpill.com/the-gmat-pill-method/critical-reasoning-test-tips/
  • http://www.b6group.com/educational/what-is-lateral-thinking-and-why-do-i-need-it-446
  • http://www.behavioradvisor.com/ProblemSolving.html
  • http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/sumitg/pubs/logical_ai.html
  • http://www.aldarin-electronics.com/market-analysis.htmlhttp://www.aldarin-electronics.com/market-analysis.html
  • http://marketingassassin.wordpress.com/2009/12/23/principles-of-marketing-13-evaluation/
  • http://flaviuporojan.ro/
works cited cont
Works Cited cont.…
  • http://www.livestrong.com/article/14710-overview-of-critical-thinking/
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