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Grade 11 Objective 4. 1 What is the density of this magnetic steel alloy? A 2.67 g/mL B 3.99 g/mL C 6.90 g/mL D 8.01 g/mL. 2 Dr. Julian’s foam was most successful in extinguishing oil fires. What are the most likely physical characteristics of this foam?

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Grade 11

Objective 4

1 What is the density of this magnetic steel alloy?

A 2.67 g/mL

B 3.99 g/mL

C 6.90 g/mL

D 8.01 g/mL

2 Dr. Julian’s foam was most successful in extinguishing oil fires. What are the most likely physical characteristics of this foam?

A Less dense than oil and does not allow oxygen in

B Waterproof and contains flammable materials

C More viscous than water and lighter than air

D Brightly colored and more porous than plastic

3 A sample of an element has a volume of 78.0 mL and a density of 1.85 g/mL. What is the mass in grams of the sample? Record and

bubble in your answer to the nearest tenth on the answer document.

4 A block of maple wood with a volume of 405 cubic centimeters and a density of 0.67 g/cm3 is sawed in half. The density of the two smaller blocks is now —

A one-fourth the original density

B one-half the original density

C two times the original density

D the same as the original density

5 This pipette is filled with a 20% NaOH solution. The solution is at 20°C and has a density of 1.23 g/mL. According to this information, what is the mass of this NaOH solution?

A 3.88 g

B 15.7 g

C 23.9 g

D 24.6 g

6 Swimmers find that they can float more easily in the ocean than in a freshwater pond. The most likely reason for this phenomenon is that the —

A viscosity of pond water is greater than that of ocean water

B density of ocean water is higher than that of pond water

C temperature of pond water is lower than that of ocean water

D mass of ocean water is greater than that of pond water

7 Compared to 250 g of gaseous nitrogen, 250 g of liquid nitrogen has greater —

A volume

B temperature

C mass

D density

8 The picture shows the results of pouring a blue liquid into a clear liquid and allowing the mixture to settle for 25 minutes. Compared to the clear liquid, the blue liquid is more —A massiveB denseC viscousD soluble

9 The table shows properties of four liquids that are insoluble in water. If the four liquids are poured into an Erlenmeyer flask containing water, which liquid will form a layer below the water?A QB RC SD T

10 A 500 mL quantity of vanilla ice cream has a mass of 400 grams. The manufacturer then bubbles air into the ice cream so that its

volume increases by 300 mL. What is the ice cream’s approximate final density?

F 0.30 g/cm3

G 0.50 g/cm3

H 0.80 g/cm3

J 1.30 g/cm

11 A bar of soap produced by this soap-making process normally sinks to the bottom of a container of water. Which of these processes

could cause the bar of soap to float in water?

A Making grooves in the surface of the thick paste

B Adding air bubbles to the thick paste

C Letting the thick paste sit for four days

D Chilling the mold filled with the thick paste

12 As the viscosity of a liquid increases, the liquid —

A conducts electricity

B pours more slowly

C evaporates more quickly

D forms a precipitate

13 Water normally boils at 100°C at sea level and at 97°C on a North American mountaintop. This difference in boiling points can be explained by the difference between the locations’—

A ultraviolet light

B air pressure

C gravitational force

D thermal energy

14 The buoyant force that a fluid exerts on objects is increased when there is an increase in the fluid’s —

F acidity

G clarity

H solubility

J density

15 The observation that an air bubble in water rises to the surface is explained by the principle of —

A viscosity

B buoyancy

C interference

D polarity

16 Brown sugar consists of crystals of white sugar coated with molasses. If brown sugar hardens, it can be softened by heating. The most likely reason brown sugar softens when heated is that heat —

A increases the moisture of sugar

B decreases the volume of molasses

C increases the density of sugar

D decreases the viscosity of molasses


A heat decomposes the compound

B the elements are volatile

C pressure increases

D their ionic bond is broken

18 The correct formula for calcium chloride is —

A CaCl

B CaCl2

C Ca2Cl

D Ca2Cl3

19 Which of the following groups contains members with similar chemical reactivity?

A Li, Be, C

B Be, Mg, Sr

C Sc, Y, Zr

D C, N, O

20 According to the periodic table, which element most readily accepts electrons?

A Fluorine

B Nitrogen

C Arsenic

D Aluminum

21 Elements in Group 16 of the periodic table usually —

F form large molecules

G gain electrons when bonding

H act like metals

J solidify at room temperature

Al3+ SO42–

22 According to this information, what is the chemical formula for aluminum sulfate?


B Al2(SO4)3

C Al3(SO4)2

D Al6SO4

Calcium (Ca2+) + Chloride (Cl–) → Calcium chloride

23 The chemical formula for calcium chloride is —

F Ca2Cl

G CaCl

H CaCl2

J Ca2Cl3

24 An unidentified element has many of the same physical and chemical properties as magnesium and strontium but has a lower atomic mass than either of these elements. What is the most likely identity of this element?

F Sodium

G Beryllium

H Calcium

J Rubidium

25 The elements from which of the following groups are most likely to react with potassium (K)?

F Group 2

G Group 7

H Group 13

J Group 17

26 The elements of which of these groups on the periodic table are most resistant to forming compounds?

A Group 1

B Group 9

C Group 14

D Group 18

27 The bonding characteristics of oxygen are most similar to the bonding characteristics of —A hydrogenB siliconC heliumD sulfur

28 Which of these elements is most likely to donate one electron?F BeG CsH RnJ He

29 Alpha particles are one type of radioactivity. These particles have a nucleus of two protons and two neutrons but have no orbital electrons. Based on this information, it can be inferred that alpha particles are positive ions of the element —F actiniumG curiumH radiumJ helium

30 A certain atom has a nucleus containing six protons and eight neutrons and has six electrons orbiting the nucleus. This atom is a form of the element —A siliconB carbonC magnesiumD calcium

31 Calcium ions play an important role in the function of neurons in the brain. Elements that are chemically similar to calcium can interfere with the function of neurons. Which of the following is most likely to imitate calcium’s role in the function of neurons?

F Sodium

G Potassium

H Strontium

J Rubidium


32 The model above shows how an unidentified element, X, forms covalent bonds with oxygen. In which group on the periodic table does Element X most likely belong?

F Group 6

G Group 12

H Group 14

J Group 18

33 In which model of the periodic table does the shaded area show the location of elements that require the least energy to lose one electron?



34 The ionic compounds that result from combining Group 2 and

Group 16 elements have a 1:1 ratio because —

A Group 2 elements are electrically neutral

B Group 2 elements have two valence electrons

C Group 2 elements contain neutrons in the nucleus

D Group 2 contains more elements than other groups

35 Silver bromide is a type of halide. Elements from which group in the periodic table are necessary to form halide compounds?

A Group 4

B Group 5

C Group 10

D Group 17

36 Elements found in which shaded area of this periodic table undergo the fewest chemical reactions?





37 According to the periodic table, which of these elements will form an ion with a –2 charge?


G Mg


J Rb

38 The diagram shows physical changes that occur in the water cycle. Which of these shows condensation?





39 Which process in the rock cycle is most likely responsible for moon rocks being converted to lunar soil?

A Metamorphism

B Weathering

C Sedimentation

D Volcanism

40 Which of these changes in rocks is a physical change?

A Acid rain damaging marble

B Iron in rock combining with oxygen to form hematite

C Carbonic acid weathering limestone

D An ice wedge shattering a slab of shale

41 Which of the following processes is an example of a physical change associated with an oak tree?

A Decomposition of bark by bracket fungi

B Starches and sugars being broken down during energy production

C Water and carbon dioxide being converted to glucose

D Evaporation of water from the surfaces of leaves

42 Compounds with the same chemical composition may have different densities because they —A have differences in reactivityB are able to bond with oxygenC vary in solubilityD exist in different phases

43 Limestone is a sedimentary rock consisting mostly of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Which process is most likely to cause a chemical change to limestone?

F Freezing water cracking limestone

G Flowing water eroding a limestone riverbed

H Acid rain forming puddles on limestone

J Coastal waves dissolving limestone sediments

44 Which of the following is an example of a chemical change?

A Combustion of gasoline

B An apple being bitten

C An ice cube being swallowed

D Absorption of a water molecule

How Portland Cement Is Made

45 Portland cement is used to make concrete, a very common construction material. Which step in the production of portland cement causes a chemical change?





46 Which of the following describes a chemical change that J. B. van Helmont could have observed?

F Limestone combined with an acid produces a gas.

G Solid carbon dioxide becomes a gas at room temperature.

H Limestone combined with sand results in a mixture.

J Diluting an acid with water produces a solution.

47 Which process best demonstrates a chemical change in distilled water?

A Freezing the water

B Separating the water into its elements

C Calculating the water’s density

D Dissolving sugar in the water

48 Which of these describes a chemical change?

F Frost disappears from a window in the morning.

G A decrease in temperature reduces the volume of a gas.

H Soot is formed as a candle burns.

J A cup of hot tea cools down.

49 In photography, which of these is an example of a chemical change?

F Light being refracted by a camera lens

G Adjusting a lens to focus light

H Halide granules being activated by light

J Allowing a certain wavelength of light into the camera

50 A sugar cube in a test tube is heated over a Bunsen burner. The sugar cube turns black and has less mass than before it was heated. These changes occur because the sugar has —

A melted

B boiled

C reacted chemically

D become hydrated

51 When a 1-kilogram log was burned, 0.05 kilogram of ash was produced. The mass of the ash is less than the mass of the log because —

A wind carried away some matter before it burned

B some matter was converted to gases that were released

C combustion changed some matter into energy

D some matter was decomposed by organisms in the soil

K + H2O → KOH + H2

52 What is the coefficient for H2O when the above equation is balanced?

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

53 According to the law of conservation of mass, how much zinc was present in the zinc carbonate?

A 40 g

B 88 g

C 104 g

D 256 g

54 The chemical equation shows CaCO3 being heated. Which of these statements best describes the mass of the products if 100 g of CaCO3 is heated?

A The difference in the products’ masses is equal to the mass of the CaCO3.

B The sum of the products’ masses is less than the mass of the CaCO3.

C The mass of each product is equal to the mass of the CaCO3.

D The sum of the products’ masses equals the mass of the CaCO3.

55 Which chemical equation supports the law of conservation of mass?

F 2H2O(l) → H2(g) + O2(g)

G Zn(s) + HCl(aq) → ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

H Al4C3(s) + H2O(l) → CH4(g) + Al(OH)3(s)

J CH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)

2Cu + O2 → 2CuO

56 When 127 g of copper reacts with 32 g of oxygen gas to form copper (II) oxide, no copper or oxygen is left over. How much copper (II) oxide is produced?

F 32 g

G 95 g

H 127 g

J 159 g

Mg + HCl → MgCl2 + H2

57 When the above equation is balanced, the coefficient for magnesium chloride is —

A 0

B 1

C 2

D 4

58 If all the reactants in a chemical reaction are completely used, which of the following statements accurately describes the relationship between the reactants and the products?

F The products must have a different physical state than the reactants.

G The total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products.

H The reactants must contain more complex molecules than the products do.

J The density of the reactants must equal the density of the products.

2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + ___

59 Which additional product balances this reaction?F 4OH(aq)G CH4(g)H H2O2(g)J 2H2O(g)

60 The mass of a rusty bicycle is found to be slightly greater than the mass of the same bicycle before it rusted. The change in mass

indicates that the rusting process —

A is a physical change

B involves an energy-to-matter conversion

C decreases the density of the metal

D involves metal bonding with other atoms

61 Aluminum metal and oxygen gas combine to produce aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Which of these is the balanced equation for this


F Al + O2 → Al2O3

G 2Al + 2O2 → 2Al2O3

H 2Al + 3O2 → 5Al2O3

J 4Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3

Reaction of

Copper with Sulfur

62 Copper (Cu) and sulfur (S) were heated in a covered container. After the reaction was complete, the unreacted sulfur was removed. The table contains the results of the investigation. How much sulfur, in grams, failed to react with the copper? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest hundredth on the answer document.

63 Which set of coefficients balances the equation?

F 3, 3, 1, 2

G 6, 1, 1, 3

H 3, 2, 1, 6

J 6, 2, 1, 6

64 Which of these would support the idea that mass is conserved in a reaction that produces a gas as a product?

A Heating the reactants to ensure the reaction occurs in a gaseous state

B Subtracting the mass of the gas from the mass of the solid and liquid products

C Mixing the reactants and measuring their total mass

D Trapping the gas and measuring its mass

65 When 50 mL of isopropyl alcohol (39.5 g) is added to 50 mL of water (50 g), the mixture will have a volume of 98 mL. What is the mass

in grams of this mixture? Record and bubble in your answer to the nearest tenth on the answer document.

66 Liquid 1 and Liquid 2 react to produce a solid and a gas. Which of the following expressions correctly shows how to determine the mass of the gas?

F (mass of Liquid 1 + mass of Liquid 2) − (mass of solid)

G (mass of Liquid 1 + mass of Liquid 2) + (mass of solid)

H (mass of Liquid 1 × mass of Liquid 2) ÷ (mass of solid)

J (mass of Liquid 1 − mass of Liquid 2) ÷ (mass of solid)

67 If the properties of water were to change so that the solid form was denser than the liquid form, organisms living in a cold pond

environment would be less likely to survive because water would no longer —

F dissolve enough oxygen from the air

G produce solutions containing vital nutrients

H remain neutral, instead becoming highly acidic

J produce a floating insulating layer of ice

68 Fish survive through severe winters because of the property of water that allows water to —

F form chemical bonds as it freezes, raising the water temperature below the ice

G increase in density while it freezes, dissolving more oxygen from the air

H expand when it freezes, creating a floating and insulating layer of ice

J precipitate vital nutrients when it freezes, increasing the food supply

69 Which characteristic of water best explains its ability to dissolve a great variety of materials?A Its transparency in lightB Its electrical conductivityC Its physical state of matterD Its molecular arrangement

70 The diagram on the right shows water molecules and ions from an NaCl crystal. What is the most likely reason that each water molecule is arranged so that the oxygen part of the molecule faces a sodium ion?

F The oxygen in a water molecule contains a partial negative charge.

G Gravity rotates the oxygen atoms to face the more-massive sodium ions.

H Hydrogen atoms create repulsive forces with chloride ions.

J Oxygen atoms form covalent bonds with sodium ions.

71 Water acts as a solvent of ionic compounds because —

F water is liquid over a wide range of temperatures

G water molecules are polar

H water is found in three states of matter

J water takes the shape of its container

72 Which of these remains the same while water molecules go through the water cycle?

F The ratio of oxygen to hydrogen in the molecules

G The rate of vibration of the molecules

H The kinds of dissolved substances between the molecules

J The amount of energy the molecules can absorb

73 The graph shows the concentration of ions found in the water of the Dead Sea. Which property of water is responsible for the dissociation of salts that produces the ion concentrations shown in the graph?

A Chemical stability

B High polarity

C Low melting point

D High freezing point

74 The structure of pure water makes it a good —

F solvent

G catalyst

H conductor

J nutrient

75 What is the reason that tap water will conduct electricity but pure water will not?

A Pure water has nonpolar bonds.

B Tap water has dissolved ions.

C Pure water has a neutral pH.

D Tap water has a lower density.

76 The solute most likely to create a

solution that produces the current

reading shown on the ammeter is —

A sucrose, C12H22O11

B ethyl alcohol, C2H5OH

C oxygen, O2

D nitric acid, HNO3

77 Two clear solutions are placed in separate beakers. The first solution has a pH of 4, and the pH of the second solution is unknown. If the two solutions are mixed and the resulting pH is 5, the second solution must have —

A fewer suspended solids

B a lower temperature

C more dissolved salt (NaCl) particles

D a higher concentration of OH– ions

78 Bathwater normally has electrolytic behaviors even though distilled water does not. This is because bathwater —

F contains isotopes of hydrogen

G has been heated

H is separated into H+ and OH– ions

J contains dissolved minerals

79 In this apparatus, the seawater is an example of a —

F strong electrolyte

G weak acid

H nonelectrolyte

J strong base

80 Dissolving salt in water increases the conductivity of the solution because the —

F alt gives the solution a net negative charge

G salt ions bond with the available water molecules

H solution has an increase in kinetic energy

J concentration of ions in the solution increases

81 Which of these statements is supported by these data?

A More KNO3 will dissolve than KBr at 0°C.

B Temperature has little effect on the water solubility of NaCl.

C KBr is insoluble in water at low temperatures.

D Temperature increases lower the solubility of NaClO3 in water.

82 When deep-sea divers explore the ocean at great depths, nitrogen becomes 10 to 100 times more soluble in the blood. A disorder called the bends occurs when nitrogen bubbles out of the blood because of a rapid —

A decrease in pressure

B increase in salt concentration

C decrease in temperature

D increase in blood pH

83 A 0.2 g crystal of gypsum dissolves very slowly in 100 mL of water while the water is stirred. Which of these would cause the gypsum to dissolve faster?

F Decreasing the water temperature

G Stopping the stirring

H Lowering the air pressure

J Crushing the crystal

84 All of these can affect the rate at which a solid dissolves in water except —

A decreasing air pressure

B stirring the water

C increasing the temperature of the water

D using larger crystals of the solid

85 Over time an open soft drink will lose carbonation (dissolved CO2). Which of these allows the CO2 to remain in solution the longest?

A Reduced air pressure

B Exposure to direct sunlight

C Increased air currents

D Cooler temperatures

86 The table shows temperature and pressure in four containers holding the same amount of water. According to the table, in which

container can the most sodium chloride be dissolved in the water?





87 Power plants that discharge warm water into rivers have a negative effect on aquatic life. This is because the higher water temperature —A increases the pressure of the river waterB increases the pH value of the river waterC decreases sediment solubility in the river waterD decreases the dissolved oxygen in the river water

F h g j

Properties of Some Solutions

89 The table shows data from an investigation designed to find a liquid solution that is both an acid and a strong electrolyte. Based on the data, a solution that is both an acid and a strong electrolyte is —

A Solution 1

B Solution 2

C Solution 3

D Solution 4

MTBE Solubility

90 MTBE is a gasoline additive that has entered some groundwater supplies. According to the table above, which of the following water

temperatures would allow 79 grams of MTBE to dissolve in 1 liter of water?

F 0°C

G 10°C

H 30°C

J 40°C

Grade 11

Objective 4

Answer Key