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Environmental Science. Agriscience Applications. Forestry. Competency Analyze the conservation practices for utilizing forest, wildlife, fisheries and environmental resources. Forest Management. 1/3 of the United States is covered by forest land. Trees. Trees Woody perennial plants

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Environmental Science


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    1. Environmental Science Agriscience Applications

    2. Forestry • Competency • Analyze the conservation practices for utilizing forest, wildlife, fisheries and environmental resources

    3. Forest Management • 1/3 of the United States is covered by forest land

    4. Trees • Trees • Woody perennial plants • Single stem • Shrubs • Bushy • Multiple stems

    5. Trees • Softwood • Needle type • Evergreens • Coniferous • Hardwoods • Broad-leaf • Looses leaves every year • Deciduous

    6. Coniferous

    7. Deciduous

    8. Trees • Softwoods • Southern Pine • Douglas fir • Frazier fir

    9. Douglas fir

    10. Trees • Southern Pine • Loblolly pine • Longleaf pine • Shortleaf pine • Slash pine • Most common for pulpwood or plywood

    11. Plywood

    12. Loblolly pine

    13. Trees • Douglas fir • Most important species of tree in the US • Used for construction lumber and plywood • 20% of the timber harvested each year in the US

    14. Trees • Frazier fir • Used for commercial Christmas tree production • Grown in the mountain of North Carolina

    15. Hardwoods • Hardwoods • Ash • Birch • Oak (white and red)

    16. Trees • Ash • Handles and baseball bats • High resistance to shock • Birch • Furniture, plywood and paneling • Verneer • thin sheet of wood glued to a cheaper species of wood

    17. White Ash

    18. River Birch

    19. Trees • Oak • White and Red • Very strong • Flooring • Furniture • Fencing

    20. Forest Management • Replacing Trees that have been harvested • “Natural seeding” lease expensive way to replace forest • Planting trees is a surer method

    21. Forest Management • Managing growing timber • Prescribed burn • Reduce the risk of wildfires • Reduce litter • Prescribed thinning • remove competing trees

    22. Forest Management • Harvesting Timber • Selection cutting • Recommended in a mixed forest consisting of trees of different ages and size • Reduces erosion • Clear Cutting • All trees are removed • Can cause erosion problems

    23. Forestry Equipment • Increment borer • Age of trees • Planting Bar • Tree scale stick • Estimate tree volume • Tree tape • Most accurate in determining circumference

    24. Estimating Saw Timber Volume • DBH • diameter breast height • measure at 4.5 feet • 25 inches from the dominant eye • Tree Height • measured at 66 feet • one chain • determine the number of 16’ logs

    25. Diameter Breast Height (DBH)

    26. Diameter Breast Height (DBH)

    27. Tree Height

    28. # pieces X t (inches) X w (inches) X l (feet) 12 bf= Calculating Board Feet • Measurement of volume • Formula

    29. 5 X 2” X 4” X 8’ 12 bf= Calculating Board Feet • Problem: • calculate board feet if you have 5 pieces of lumber that are 2 inches thick, 4 inches wide, and all are 8 feet long

    30. 5 X 2” X 4” X 8’ 12 bf= Calculating Board Feet • Answer: bf= 26.6

    31. Forestry Careers • Foresters • Assistance in managing forest • Recommend harvesting methods • Recommend seeding methods • Monitor disease and insects • Average yearly salary in North Carolina • $41,184 Source: Bridges Career Explorer

    32. Forestry Careers • Timber cruiser • Estimate timber volume • Outdoor work requiring physical stamina • High School diploma • Training in estimating tree volume

    33. Wildlife Management

    34. Wildlife Management • Objective • Interpret wildlife management practices as related to good environmental management

    35. Wildlife Management • Usually a by-product of the family operation • Sustainable habitat and food are essential in increasing the number of wildlife on a farm • Leaving brush piles when harvesting • Leave crop residue standing

    36. Crop Residue

    37. Wildlife Management • Hunting and fishing as proper management • Remove excess wildlife • Prevents: • Overpopulation • Malnutrition • Disease • Overall decreases in population

    38. Wildlife Management • Carrying Capacity • Number of wildlife that can be supported throughout the year • Hunting and fishing help maintain carrying capacity • Results of overpopulation • Water quality of a stream with a carrying capacity of 20 fish will decrease if 50 fish are in the stream

    39. Deer Overpopulation Browse Line in Texas

    40. Assignment • View the protection of Wildlife DVD • Prepare for a quiz

    41. Quiz • What are the four essential elements of a Habitat? • What is the main purpose of predators • What Act of congress is designed to protect animal populations

    42. Careers in Wildlife Game Warden Wildlife Careers Ecologist Wildlife Biologist

    43. Careers in Wildlife • Ecologist • Studies the effect of the environment on animal life • Wildlife Biologist • Advises the establishment of fish/game laws • Explores habitat improvement programs

    44. Careers in Wildlife • Game Warden • Enforces hunting and fishing regulations • Government employee under the Wildlife Commission • Controls the harvesting of wildlife • Should enjoy working outdoors

    45. Aquatics • The management of aquatic environments to increase the harvest of usable plants and animal products

    46. Aquatics • Cage Cultures • Production system • Aquatic animals and plants are contained in a small area • Easier to monitor • Better growth rates • Limited movement which could cause stress

    47. Aquatics • Recirculating Tanks • Production method • Processes water through a biological filter

    48. Recirculating Tanks

    49. Aquatics • Roll Over • A ponds water quality suddenly changes • Less oxygenated water is brought to the surface and low levels of dissolved oxygen cause fish to die • Difficulty in managing an aquaculture system is related to the amount of fish in the system

    50. Aquatics • Fish adapted to aquaculture systems: • Trout (cold running water) • Catfish • Bass • Tilapia