Five basic sections of a research paper
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Five Basic Sections of a Research Paper. 1) Abstract 2) Introduction 3) Method 4) Results 5) Discussion. Order of APA Paper Sections. The order of the sections of the manuscript are as follows:   A.Title Page B.Abstract C.Introduction D.Method E.Results F.Discussion

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Five basic sections of a research paper l.jpg
Five Basic Sections of a Research Paper

  • 1) Abstract

  • 2) Introduction

  • 3) Method

  • 4) Results

  • 5) Discussion


Order of apa paper sections l.jpg
Order of APA Paper Sections

  • The order of the sections of the manuscript are as follows:  

    • A.Title Page

    • B.Abstract

    • C.Introduction

    • D.Method

    • E.Results

    • F.Discussion

    • G.References

    • H.Other Sections

      • Appendix

      • Tables

      • Figure captions

      • Figures


Title page l.jpg
Title Page

  • The title page formally announces the title and running head of your lab report.

  • The title page contains:

    • The article title

    • Author name(s)

    • Author affiliation

    • Manuscript page header

    • Page number

    • Running head


Abstract l.jpg
Abstract

  • The abstract is the "Reader's Digest" version of the paper

    • Its purpose is to show the reader the research at a glance.

  • Condensed format.

    • Abstracts must be condensed yet stand alone. The abstract should be understandable to someone who has not read the paper.

  • Order.

    • Each section of the paper requires 1 to 2 sentence in the abstract. Information is arranged in the same order as the sections in the lab report: Introduction, Method, Results, and Discussion.

  • Single paragraph.

    • Abstracts should be presented as one paragraph.


  • Introduction l.jpg
    Introduction

    • The goal of the introduction is to justify your study.

      • Introduce the research question

      • Summarize the research done to date

        • Not just the studies whose results you agree with. Identify studies that support an opposite finding, and explain what might underlie the differences.

      • Explain what work has yet to be done (your study).

      • At the end, state your hypotheses.


    Method l.jpg
    Method

    • The Method section is a detailed breakdown of your experiment.

    • Give the reader enough information to be able replicate the experiment.

    • The Method section is often divided into subsections (for example: )

      • Participants and Design

      • Materials

      • Procedure

      • Measures


    Slide10 l.jpg

    Note: Current APA style requires ITALICS

    where you see underlining here.


    Results l.jpg
    Results

    • This section presents the statistical analysis of the data collected.

      • States what stat procedures were used and the results of the analyses

  • The Results section is the most condensed and standardized of all the sections in a paper

  • Statistical results are presented but not discussed in this section.

    • As predicted, children who viewed the aggressive model were significantly more aggressive than children in the no-model condition t (18) = 4.03, p < .01. The mean aggression score in the model group was M = 5.20 and in the no-model group was M = 3.10.

  • Discuss results in the Discussion section.


  • Slide12 l.jpg

    Note: Current APA style requires ITALICS

    where you see underlining here.


    Slide13 l.jpg

    Note: Current APA style requires ITALICS

    where you see underlining here.


    Discussion l.jpg
    Discussion

    • In this section, interpret your results by relating them to your hypotheses.

      • Use words to explain the quantitative information from the results section.

  • Discuss the results in relation to each hypothesis.

  • Discuss possible explanations for your results.

    • Do the results agree or disagree with the ideas that you introduced in the Introduction?

    • How do the results relate to previous literature or current theory?

  • Identify and discuss limitations of the study.

  • Generalize your results.


  • References l.jpg
    References

    • Must contain complete citations for all sources mentioned in the paper

    • Use APA format

      • Capitalization, spacing, punctuation, and underlining must be exactly as specified.


    Appendix tables and figures l.jpg
    Appendix, Tables and Figures

    • Appendix

      • Put information that would be distracting in the body of the paper (like questionnaires or a list of stimulus items)

  • Tables and figures often represent results more clearly and concisely than does text.

  • Tables

    • Often statistical information (correlations, means, etc) are placed in a table.

  • Figures

    • AKA Graphs

    • A separate page with Figure Captions is provided before the figures


  • Slide18 l.jpg

    Note: Current APA style requires ITALICS

    where you see underlining here.


    The hourglass method l.jpg
    The Hourglass Method

    • INTRODUCTION

      • Starts out very broad, ends up narrowly focusing on your specific study and its hypotheses

  • METHOD

    • Very narrow, detailed, technical, and specific.

  • RESULTS

    • Still narrowly focused on the specific results of the specific tests you performed to test your hypotheses.

  • DISCUSSION

    • Starts out very narrow, summarizing your results; then becomes broader as you discuss the implications and limitations to your research; ends up broadly conveying the 2-4 most important things you want your readers to remember from your research.


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