Cultural Diversity Cultural Competence Dr Pheo Martin Realizing Education’s Potential Institute • How can educators in online courses bridge the broad stream of culturally (not just internationally) different students? • There are some simple pedagogical tools that can greatly help.
Cultural Diversity Culture most often develops over time and place without conscious intention • Definition of Culture: • Integration of Worldview with the associated beliefs, values, attitudes, appearance, perceptual filters; as well as shared terminology/language.
Cultural Diversity Model Cultures in a Broad Scope • Personal Culture – I do my own thing • Fixed: Race, Age, Gender, Native Language(s), • Evolving: Personalization, Socialization, Education • Associative Culture – We hang out together • Fixed: Family • Evolving: Friends, Shared Interest Groups, Religion, • Societal Culture – I can take it or leave it • Fixed: possible class • Evolving: Income, location, Career, Status
Cultural Diversity Is an Iceberg? • Visible: • Fitting In or Not… • Invisible: • Perceptual Filters • Attitudes • Values • Beliefs
Cultural Diversity and Geert Hofstede • Research into four Cultural Dynamics (Avoids stereotyping by Ethnic/Racial Group) • Individualism/Collectivism • Masculinity/Femininity • Power Difference • Uncertainty Avoidance
Cultural Diversity Personal Culture is often de-emphasized by associative and societal cultures – to the detriment of the individual • Often Unformed Worldviews • Buried/unformed beliefs, values, attitudes, appearance • Unconscious/Preconscious Perceptual filters • Communication style cohesive with dominant associative/societal culture
Cultural Diversity Associative Cultures are formed by family, friends, shared interest groups, and organizations, etc. • Shared Worldview (Belief paradigm for the purpose of life, human nature, reality of afterlife) expressed in stated attitudes, values, and behavior/activities • Family culture is first influencer • Throughout life associative cultures can change the most
Cultural Diversity Societal Cultures are enduring and adaptable • Shared Worldview in coherence or dissonance with associative cultures –Bending but not breaking…. • Traditions, Educational/Political/Social systems, reflect and promote worldview • Shared beliefs/attitudes/values may be few but are powerful
Cultural Diversity Global Culture Requires • Inclusive Relationships Between Social Cultures • Articulated and Promoted Beliefs and Values Shared by all Cultures
Social/Associative CultureAnd Online Education Online Course Challenges for Students • Level of dissonance with Social/Associative Cultures • Develop high levels of Cultural Competence – going beyond assumptions about race, ethnicity, age, gender, etc. What Worldviews can produce… Cultural Considerations for Ed Techs/Instructors
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Geert Hofstede, Dutch Social Psychologist • Worldwide effort to group cultures by values • Surveyed over 116,000 employees in more than 70 countries approximately 1971 Individualism and Collectivism Masculinity-Femininity Acceptance of Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance
Hofstede’s 5th Cultural DimensionLong Term Orientation • Surveyed students in 23 countries approximately 1971 • Survey designed by Chinese scholars to focus on Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the teachings of Confucius, the most influential Chinese philosopher who lived around 500 B.C.; however, the dimension also applies to countries without a Confucian heritage.
Individualism and Collectivism Hofstede’s Cultural Index Collectivism: • High value on group, Family, etc organization • Loyalty/Devotion • Conformity Individualism: • High value on autonomy • Individual achievement • Privacy
Individualism and Collectivism Hofstede’s Cultural Index Collectivism: • High value on group, Family, etc. organization • Loyalty/Devotion • Conformity Individualism: • High value on autonomy • Individual achievement • Privacy Social Culture: 1. Have best chance 1. Do well in groups discussions/work in online ed. 2. Do best with taught materials 2. Do well with SCL Associative Culture: Associative Cultures can impede online education by demands and attitudes -- whether they are individualistic or collective
Masculinity and Femininity Hofstede’s Cultural Index Femininity: Relationships, Caring for disadvantaged, Harmony, • Masculinity: • Success, • Assertive, Acquisition of money/power, • Achievement,
Masculinity and Femininity Hofstede’s Cultural Index • Femininity:RelationshipsCaring for disadvantagedharmony Masculinity:SuccessAssertive acquisition of money/powerachievement Social Culture: Do Best with Clearly 1. Can struggle with autonomy stated Expectations 2. Service Learning Receptivity Do well with SCL Associative Culture: 1. May be Critical of others 1. May have difficulty with2. May Challenge …. Deadlines because of culture requirements
Power DistanceAcceptance of differences in power Hofstede’s Cultural Index • The extent to which the less powerful members accept that power is not distributed equally. High Power Given:Accept position Follow authority Concentrated & centralized authority Hierarchical Low Power Given:Avoid concentrationof authority Prefer Decentralized systems Fewer layers of management
Power DistanceAcceptance in difference in power Hofstede’s Cultural Index High Power Given: Accept positionFollow Hierarchical authorityConcentrated & centralized authority Low Power Given:Avoid concentrationof authorityPrefer Decentralized systemsFewer layers of management 1. May Be Argumentative 2. May Question Assignments Social Culture: 1. May have trouble if online course seen as freed from instructor authority May not express differences with others in discussions May have trouble working independently Associative Culture: 1. May require extra information and Instructions
Uncertainty AvoidanceReaction to ambiguous events Hofstede’s Cultural Index High Avoidance of Uncertainty • Threatened by ambiguity • Need stable & predictable workplace • Reliance on rules Low Avoidance of Uncertainty • Embrace unpredictable • Willing to Figure Out Unknowns • Risk taker
Uncertainty AvoidanceReaction to ambiguous events Hofstede’s Cultural Index High Avoidance of UncertaintyThreatened by ambiguityNeed stable & predictable workplaceReliance on rules • Low Avoidance of UncertaintyEmbrace unpredictableWilling to Figure Out UnknownsRisk taker Social Culture: May require more detailed instructions May need more instructor contact 1. May not ask for needed clarifications Associative Culture 1. May point out inconsistencies 2. May be critical of technology problems 1. Do well with figuring out glitches or tech. challenges
Effects of Combined Dimensions Hofstede’s Cultural Index Individualism-Collectivism & Power Distance High power distance and collectivism:Most likely to have trouble with online classes because of acculturation. Culture requirements also can impede time for necessary work level, especially w/feminine Low power distance and individualism:Most likely can adapt to online classes, but may challenge directions, instructions, etc., especially with masculine. May not do well in group work and forums
Pairing of Traits Hofstede’s Cultural Index Uncertainty Avoidance & Masculinity-Femininity Feminine has higher avoidance of uncertainty:Most likely to have trouble with online classes because of high avoidance of uncertainty. Pleasing others in associative culture can hamper getting work done (especially if high power given). Masculine has lower avoidance of uncertainty:Motivated to achieve high grades in online classes, does well with SCL, and adapts to well to LMS. Takes leadership in groups. (Can challenge content and rules if low power given).
Cultural Competency • Working Definition for Educators: • The ability to identify, respect, respond, and effectively communicate with students from various cultures • Prepare courses designed for multicultural diversity.
The Cultural Competence Continuum Positive Proficiency Discerning Cultural competency begins with appreciation of diversity. Indiscriminating Exclusive Negative Apathetic Destructive
Cultural Competence Continuum: • Working Definitions of Terms for Educators • Destructive:racism, sexism, and berating of students’ cultural needs • Apathetic:Disregard for cultural diversity that results in producing design and presentation of materials/assessments which frustrate all students some of the time
Cultural Competence Continuum: • Working Definitions of Terms for Educators • Exclusive: Purposively caters to certain cultural dimensions, leaving the rest to fail, such as SCL. • Indiscriminating: Goes too far in excusing bad behavior as ‘cultural,’ such as not meeting assignment stipulations or deadlines (often this indiscrimination can lead to prejudice)
Cultural Competence Continuum: • Working Definitions of Terms for Educators • Discerning: Recognizes cultural diversity, adapting and refining course design, and increasing personal availability as necessary. • Proficiency:Increases personal knowledge of cultural diversity, and produces design and presentation of course materials compatible to all cultures, with excellent use of culturally appropriate language.
Language Usage that Undermines Cultural Competency For ESL students in Particular • Communication – Written or Verbal: • Connotations • Colloquialisms
Language Usage that Undermines Cultural Competency For ESL students in Particular • Pitfalls in Communication:Personal Culture – I do my own thing • Associative Culture – We hang out together • Societal Culture – I can take it or leave it • There is no rhyme or reason for your position To Avoid Use Simple Sentences in Directions Student
Cultural Competency & Language • Starts with awareness of potential language usage difficulties for students • Develops with recognition of language that can be confusing • Increases in proficiency by proactive development and editing.
Suggestions for Creating Balances, Avoiding Confusion in Online Courses • Produce and Edit Instructions and Materials with sensitivity to language usage, and for those with • Provide ongoing and easy access for students who have high levels of uncertainty avoidance. • Recognize needs of collective, high power, feminine culture students from students with inability to take responsibility.
Cultural Diversity Cultural Competence Realizing Education’s Potential Institute For More Discussion, see: “Balance in Our Classrooms, Cultures, World”http://realizingeducationspotential.org/blog/ firstname.lastname@example.org