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In-vivo Blood Pressure Sensor. Anup Pillai Dhanya Premkumar Nair. Outline. Current blood pressure sensors in use Background Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood Pressure Sensing Micro system and Advantages

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In-vivo Blood Pressure Sensor


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in vivo blood pressure sensor

In-vivo Blood Pressure Sensor

Anup Pillai

Dhanya Premkumar Nair

outline
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
need to measure blood pressure
Need to measure blood pressure
  • To diagnose critical medical conditions like hypertension

-causes strokes, heart attacks, heart failures

  • Low blood pressure causes hypotension, which results in dizziness, fainting or shock
conventional blood pressure monitoring systems non invasive sensors
Conventional blood pressure monitoring systems (non-invasive sensors)

Auscultatory method

Mercury Manometer

current blood pressure sensors in use
Current blood pressure sensors in use

With the new sensor, no cuff is required

Device takes advantage of the method called pulse wave velocity which allows blood pressure to be calculated by measuring the pulse at 2 points along an artery

This was developed at MIT's d'Arbeloff Laboratory for Information Systems and Technology

outline6
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
background
Background
  • In vivo-Latin for “within the living”
  • Experimentations are done using a whole, living organism
  • In vivo monitoring is critical for developing effective treatments
background contd
Background (Contd.)
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system
outline9
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
long term implantable blood pressure monitoring system
Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System
  • The system employs an instrumented elastic cuff, wound around a blood vessel
  • Operates in a linear “diameter v.s. pressure” region of the vessel for real time blood pressure monitoring
  • The elastic cuff is made of soft bio-compatible rubber, filled with bio-compatible insulating fluid with an immersed MEMS pressure sensor
  • The MEMS sensor detects the vessel blood pressure wave form with a constant scaling factor, independent of the cuff bias pressure exerting on the vessel.
implantable blood pressure monitoring system
Implantable blood pressure monitoring system

MEMS sensor

Insulating Liquid

Vein

Cuff

advantages
Advantages
  • This technique avoids vessel insertion
  • Also substantially minimizes vessel movement restriction due to the soft cuff elasticity
  • Attractive for minimizing long-term adverse biological effects
outline13
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
wireless battery less in vivo blood pressure sensing micro system
Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system
  • Wireless powering and data telemetry are also incorporated in the micro system
  • This eliminates the need of external wire connections and any bulky battery
  • The micro system can be used to obtain reliable measurements without suffering from stress induced distortion
outline16
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
outline19
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
our objectives
Our Objectives
  • The sensor specified in the background exhibits increased noise levels
  • The transmitter of the same dissipated a 80% of the system power
  • Our objectives are:

a) To design a similar sensor which exhibits less noise levels

b) To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor

objective 1
Objective 1
  • To find a solution which exhibits less noise levels
  • We began by investigating the reason for the high noise levels in the current design
reason for noise
Reason for noise
  • Animal body vapor penetration into the device
  • Affect the functioning of the electrical connections within the sensor.
the damage caused
The damage caused
  • The high impedance node can be highly sensitive to vapor penetration
  • Electrical connections between the sensor diaphragm and IC chip
solution proposed
Solution proposed
  • Protection for moisture penetration is required for the sensor diaphragm as well as the electrical connections between the sensor diaphragm and IC chip.
solution proposed contd
Solution proposed (Contd.)
  • A passivation layer, such as silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4), can be deposited on the top of diaphragm.
  • An encapsulant material with strong moisture resistance can be used to protect the bond wires between the sensor and IC before applying silicone passivation layer.
objective 2
Objective 2
  • To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor
  • In the microsystem, an oscillator based FSK transmitter was employed for data telemetry
  • This transmitter was on throughout and hence resulted in 80% power dissipation
solution
Solution
  • To use a transmitter operating with a low duty cycle
  • One can also use a transmitter with an increased bandwidth
numerical calculations
Numerical Calculations
  • If the sampling frequency is 2 kHz, with data rate of 48 kbps, corresponding bit rate is 24 per 0.5 ms
  • This is the current specification for the system
numerical calculations contd
Numerical Calculations (Contd.)
  • Instead if we the transmitter is designed to be on for 0.05 ms and off for the remaining 0.45 ms
  • This results in one order magnitude power reduction at increased data rate of 480 kbps
  • This corresponds to 72% overall system power reduction
outline30
Outline
  • Current blood pressure sensors in use
  • Background
  • Long-Term Implantable Blood Pressure Monitoring System and Advantages
  • Wireless Battery less In VIVO Blood PressureSensing Micro system and Advantages
  • System Architecture
  • Our Objectives
  • Timeline and Division of work
  • Conclusions
division of work
Division of Work
  • First Objective:

To design a similar sensor which exhibits less noise levels-A. Pillai

  • Second Objective:

To design a better and more power efficient transmitter for the sensor-D. Nair

conclusions
Conclusions
  • A review of current in-vivo blood pressure sensors was presented in this review study
  • We identified the potential problems with existing solutions
  • We have proposed two solutions that will enhance the performance of the current design
references
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references contd
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references contd36
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references contd37
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