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Irish Phytochemical Food Network. Systems Comparison Trial. Reilly, K., Finn. L., Valverde, J., Grant, J., Gaffney, M., Brunton, N. OGI Farm Walk 10 th July 2012 email: kim.reilly@teagasc.ie. Irish Phytochemical Food Network.

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Systems comparison trial

Irish Phytochemical Food Network

Systems Comparison Trial

Reilly, K., Finn. L., Valverde, J., Grant, J., Gaffney, M., Brunton, N.

OGI Farm Walk 10th July 2012

email: kim.reilly@teagasc.ie


Irish phytochemical food network
Irish Phytochemical Food Network

  • A FIRM funded project set up in 2008 to study phytochemicals in Irish grown fruit and vegetables “from farm to fork”. It is made up of researchers from Teagasc Kinsealy and AFRC, UCC, UCD, UCL, DIT and UCC.

phytochemicals =“non-nutrient compounds

produced by plants that have biological activity

against chronic disease”. AKA “plant bioactives”

Funding body:

Members:


Teagasc kinsealy work package 3
Teagasc Kinsealy : Work-package 3

  • Variety

  • Plant nutrition

  • Plant maturity

  • Tissue type

  • Plant spacing

  • Conventional vs. Organic

  • Production Practices

Broccoli Field Trial 2008

Onion – quercetin Broccoli- glucosinolates Carrot - polyacetylenes


Types of study
Types of study:

  • Basket survey e.g. Meyer et al. 2008

  • Paired Farm Survey e.g. Lester et al. 2007

  • 3) Field trial e.g. Soltoft et al. 2010

Suggested criteria (Dangour et al. 2009)

  • 1) specification of the cultivar of crop or breed of livestock

  • 2) a statement of which nutrient or other nutritionally relevant substance was analyzed

  • 3) a description of the laboratory analytic methods used

  • 4) a statement of the methods used for statistical analyses

  • 5) a clear definition of the organic production methods, including

  • the name of the organic certification body.




Systems comparison trial2
Systems Comparison trial

  • Objective: 

  • To investigate the effect of, and interaction between, production system components  - a) soil management and b)  pest control measures, that differ between organic and conventional systems, on phytochemical accumulation in  2 varieties each of carrot, broccoli and onion.

    2x2x2 factorial split plot design with 4 replicates

  • Main-plot: 2 varieties of each crop (V1, V2)

  • Sub-plot: 2 Levels of soil treatment a) Organic Soil treatment (OS)

  • b) Conventional Soil treatment (CS)

  • Sub sub plot: 2 levels of pest control a) Organic pest control (OP)

  • b) Conventional pest control (CP)

  • This gives 8 experimental treatments for each crop

  • 1) V1 OS OP 5) V2 OS OP

  • 2) V1 OS CP 6) V2 OS CP

  • 3) V1 CS OP 7) V2 CS OP

  • 4) V1 CS CP 8) V2 CS CP


Split plot design
Split plot design:

V1 V2

  • CP

  • OP

CS

OS

OS

CS


Soil treatments

Pest Control Treatments::

Soil Treatments::

*Based on soil test equivalent levels of N, P, K added to CS and OS treatments



Factorial systems comparison trial
Factorial Systems Comparison Trial

Refuge 2009

Spring 2009

OS + OP

OS + CP

Harvested carrots


Lab analyses
Lab Analyses:

  • AFRC - Polyacetylenes in carrot

  • - Glucosinolates in broccoli

  • - Phenolic compounds in onion

  • Kinsealy - Yield

  • - Total phenolics + flavonoids

  • - Taste panel test

  • - Soil ecology


Systems trial onion 2009 data
Systems trial: Onion (2009 data)

  • Bulb weight was higher under CP treatment (p<0.05)

  • Total Phenolics – higher in ‘Red Baron’ (p<0.05) and under OS treatment (p<0.01)

  • Total Flavonoids – higher in ‘Red Baron’ (p<0.01) and under OS treatment (p<0.01)

  • Total Flavonoids higher under fully organic (OSOP) than fully conventional (CSCP) (p<0.05)


Systems trial broccoli 2009 data
Systems trial – broccoli (2009 data)

  • Floret weight was higher under CS treatment (p<0.01)

  • Total Phenolics – higher under OS treatment (p<0.05)

  • Total Flavonoids – higher under OS treatment (p<0.05)


Glucosinolates 2009 and 2010 data

Dr Juan Valverde AFRC

Glucosinolates (2009 and 2010 data)

2009

2010


Systems trial carrot 2009 and 2010 data
Systems trial - Carrot (2009 and 2010 data)

  • Higher yield from cv. Nairobi both years (p<0.05)

  • Higher yield with CS both years (p<0.01)

  • Higher yield with CP treatment in 2009 (p<0.05)


Systems trial carrot 2009 and 2010 data1
Systems trial - Carrot (2009 and 2010 data)

  • Total phenolics

  • Total flavonoids

  • Total Phenolics:

  • Slightly lower in 2010

  • No significant main effects

  • Variety x pest control

  • interaction in 2009(higher in

  • Flyaway CP)

  • Total Flavonoids:

  • Higher in 2010

  • Significantly higher under OS soil treatment in 2009 but not 2010

  • Variety x pest control

  • interaction in both years(higher in Flyaway CP)


Polyacetylene content 2009 and 2010 data falcarinol

Dr Juan Valverde AFRC

Polyacetylene content (2009 and 2010 data) - Falcarinol

  • Significant effect of year (p<0.05)

  • Falcarinol significantly higher in cv. Nairobi (p<0.01)

  • Interaction effects…

  • Overall conventional not different to organic


Soil microbial community
Soil Microbial Community

*in collaboration with Dora Lola-Luz, Bryan Griffiths, Dorothy Stone, Eileen Cullen

Biolog Eco Plates - CLPP

Higher under OS p<0.001

Pest control treatment n.s.

Organic (OSOP) higher than conventional (CSCP)


Soil microbial community1
Soil Microbial Community

Culturable Microbial and total nematode populations

Fungal/bacterial ratio


Soil microbial community2
Soil Microbial Community

DGGE

Fungal primers: Bacterial primers:

Excised and sequencing 22 fungal bands and 8 bacterial


Thank you
Thank you!

Acknowledgements: Christy Roberts, Leo Finn, Philip Dunne, FETAC students