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Biogeochemical Cycles. Carbon and Nitrogen. LIFE. Living things contain matter in a highly organized, low-entropy state; they can capture, store, and transmit energy . Organisms are also capable of reproduction and change through time. The Biological Pump.

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biogeochemical cycles
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Carbon and Nitrogen
slide2
LIFE
  • Living things contain matter in a highly organized, low-entropy state; they can capture, store, and transmit energy.
  • Organisms are also capable of reproduction and change through time.
the biological pump
The Biological Pump
  • The biological pump is the process by which CO2 fixed in photosynthesis is transferred to the ocean interior resulting in a temporary or permanent storage of carbon.
  • This biogeochemical process involving plants, the animals that consume them, and the bacteria that assimilate their waste plays a central role in the global carbon cycle.
biogeochemical cycles1
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Natural processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms from the nonliving environment to living organisms and then back to the nonliving environment
chemicals used by organisms
Chemicals used by organisms
  • Organisms use chemicals in their metabolism
  • Carbon
  • Oxygen
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen (proteins, nucleic acids)
carbon
CARBON
  • The basic building block of life
  • Carbon enters the atmosphere though;

respiration

volcanic eruptions

release from rocks deep in earth’s crust

burning of fossil fuels

photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • Carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere by producers that use CO2, sunlight and nutrients to make food through the process of photosynthesis.
  • Plants FIX carbon into usable forms (sugar)
slide8

CO2

Photosynthesis

Phytoplankton

respiration
Respiration
  • Some CO2 is then released back into the water through respiration as the plankton break down their food to release energy.
slide10

CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Phytoplankton

consumption
Consumption
  • Some of the carbon is passed on to primary consumers: zooplankton (animal plankton) and other filter feeders that depend on phytoplankton for their energy.
slide12

CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Consumption

decomposition
Decomposition
  • Bacteria play a vital role in the biological pump by decomposing organic particles such as waste products and dead organisms that sink to the deep sea (Aerobic decomposition releases CO2).
microbial loop
Microbial Loop
  • Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is used by bacteria
  • Bacteria is eaten by protozoan
  • Protozoan are eaten by zooplankton
  • Zooplankton is eaten by fish
  • Fish excrete DOC
  • DOC is eaten by bacteria
  • And so on…
slide15

CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Consumption

Decomposition

Bacteria

higher trophic levels
Higher Trophic Levels
  • Consumption continues to transport carbon through higher trophic levels.
slide17

CO2

CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Respiration

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton

Consumption

Higher LevelConsumers

Decomposition

Consumption

Decomposition

Bacteria

higher trophic levels1
Higher Trophic Levels
  • The process continues…
slide19

CO2

CO2

CO2

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Respiration

Phytoplankton

Respiration

Zooplankton

Consumption

Higher LevelConsumers

Decomposition

Consumption

Decomposition

Bacteria

nitrogen
Nitrogen
  • Critical component of proteins, chlorophyll and nucleic acids
  • Found in the bodies of organisms in different forms…
nitrogen input
Nitrogen input
  • Nitrogen is added to the ocean by;

river runoff

precipitation

nitrogen-fixing organisms

useable nitrogen
Useable nitrogen
  • 48% of dissolved gas in seawater is nitrogen
  • Organisms can not use free nitrogen
  • Must be bound to oxygen or hydrogen
  • Bacteria fix nitrogen (make it bigger)
  • Plant growth is limited because of the limited source of useable nitrogen
nitrogen and animals
Nitrogen and animals
  • As dissolved organic ions (waste):

ammonium NH4+

nitrite NO2-

nitrate NO3-

nitrogen and plants
Nitrogen and plants
  • Small oceanic plants use mostly nitrate (fertilizer)
  • Fish eat the plants and excrete ammonia and urea.
  • Mulm the technical term for what comes out of the vent
  • Then bacteria fixes the mulm into useable fertilizer for plants again
in an aquarium
In an aquarium
  • Ammonia is in fish waste and is also released through gills when they absorb oxygen (breathe)
  • Ammonia can be changed into a toxic form called Ammonium depending on pH levels, temperature, and salinity
  • High levels of ammonium can kill fish
3 kinds of filtration used to get rid of waste
3 KINDS OF FILTRATION USED TO GET RID OF WASTE

BIOLOGICAL: Bacteria ingest waste and convert it.

CHEMICAL: O3 binds to “junk” in the water and makes it easier to remove. Carbon also removes impurities from the water.

PHYSICAL: Water flows through mechanical filter plates and the waste gets trapped.

nitrifying bacteria
Nitrifying Bacteria
  • Nitrobacter and nitrosomonas (the good kind of bacteria)
  • Converts ammonia and nitrites into nitrates
  • Denitrifying bacteria turns nitrates back into nitrites and free ammonia
  • This keeps the cycle going
where the bacteria lives
Where the bacteria lives
  • On any clean, hard surface
  • Aerobic NEED oxygen
  • Examples:

gravel

bioballs

filter plates

problems with aquariums
Problems with Aquariums
  • Temperature
  • Bacteria populations
  • Parasites
  • Stress
parasites
Parasites
  • Worms;

Nematodes (round worms)

Trematodes (hooks and suckers)

little parasites
Little parasites…
  • Ciliated Protozoans;

Ichthyopthirius multifiliis (ICH) fresh

Cryptocaryon (crypt) salt

ich and crypt
ICH and CRYPT
  • Appears as white spots anywhere on a fish
  • Fish will rub against rocks etc. because its itchy
  • Very contagious
  • Spreads rapidly
  • Is always present but will “take over” if a fish’s immune system is suppressed by;

stress, sudden change in temp, etc.

treatments fyi
Treatments (FYI)
  • If you are treating Ich use a salt water bath
  • If you are treating crypt use a fresh water bath
  • If your tank has NO invertebrates you can use a copper solution (but they can build a tolerance to this over time)