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Using Individualism and Collectivism to Compare Cultures-A Critique of the Validity and Measurement of the Constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al.(2002). 報告人 學科 所 施佩岑. Outline. Introduction Implications of National Comparisons

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slide1

Using Individualism and Collectivism to Compare Cultures-A Critique of the Validity and Measurement of the Constructs: Comment on Oyserman et al.(2002)

報告人

學科所 施佩岑

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Implications of National Comparisons
  • Effects on Self-Concept , Well-being , Cognition, and Relationality?
  • What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?
  • Conclusions
introduction
Introduction
  • In most cases the results from any nation are quite heterogeneous wrong construct? wrong scale?
  • sampled college students, who may be more Western, more individualistic, and less collectivistic in outlook than other adults .

 a potentially serious limitation

implications of national comparisons
Implications of National Comparisons
  • IND-COL scalecontents affect different results.
  • quite heterogeneous, why? If a theoretical construct is valid, it can be measured in innumerable conceptually appropriate ways, and different measures will yield convergent results.
  • meta-analyses of these studies of national and ethnic differences in IND and COL indicate that these two constructs, as measured, are not valid.
effects on self concept well being cognition and relationality
Effects on Self-Concept , Well-being , Cognition, and Relationality?
  • individual differences are individual differences, not cultural differences
  • research does not support the theory that East Asian COL produces a psychology that contrasts with the psychology of NA IND.
what is the matter with the ind and col constructs
What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • Nations are political units that don't correspond with cultural units
  • The experimental situation is not a constant. big problem
  • These methods rely on verbal responses
  • need to establish the external validity of our measures
what is the matter with the ind and col constructs1
What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • Conflating Distinct Types of Sociality
    • no reason to believe that cultural emphasis on one kind of relationship, identity, membership, or obligation is positively correlated with emphases on other kinds.
    • conflate all COL kinds of sociality, treating them as if they resulted from the same psychological processes and had the same psychological consequences
what is the matter with the ind and col constructs2
What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • Conflating 10 types of Autonomy
    • independence can take many forms
    • The intuitive sense to Americans and some Western Europeans is IND and it’s hodgepodge. Americans define their culture.
    • COL is the opposite side of IND
    • In the last 2 decades, American popular ideology does not make very good scientific theory in cross-cultural psychology
what is the matter with the ind and col constructs3
What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • Confusing the Individualism With the Collective
    • To treat of culture as another individual trait, measuring individual differences as if culture were a personality dimension  do not make sense
    • IND&COL scales measureculture would be a wide range of cultures in every family, neighborhood, and ethnic group
    • ways of life  qualitatively distinct
what is the matter with the ind and col constructs4
What Is the Matter With the IND and COL Constructs?
  • What Methods Would be Better?
    • May argue that IND-COL arethe best dimensions for comparing cultures but that current scales have a lot of random erroruse another statistical analysis taxometricanalysis
    • taxometric analysis will confirm the existence of latent, qualitatively distinct cultural types
    • IND-COL are not cultures but the effect of psychological process  collect categorical data on cultural participation and modeling
    • No method is valid  use a variety of complementary methods
what is culture and how should we compare cultures
What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?
  • What is culture?
    • A socially transmitted or socially constructed constellation
  • How should cultural psychologists characterize,compare,and contrast cultures?
    • To Learn from Anthropologists………..
what is culture and how should we compare cultures1
What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?

1.Subsistence and economic systems

  • The different of subsistence < Cultural differences
  • Economic systems have some psychological sources and widespread psychological consequences

2.Religion

  • the ultimate purposes of human life
  • perceptions of human nature, paths to truth, good and evil and the existence of rebirth and afterlife imagine the psychological consequences of the belief
what is culture and how should we compare cultures2
What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?

3.Marriage

  • affect the age of marriage, the place to reside, make the choice of spouses, the divorce rate , options of being widow or remarry

 profound effects on psychology

4.Kinship systems

  • identities and lifelong relationships
what is culture and how should we compare cultures3
What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?

5.Relational models

  • Determine the importance and character of relationship

6.Sex and food

  • Rules regarding sex , food and basic needs
  • desire, jealousy, guilt, and self-control
what is culture and how should we compare cultures4
What Is Culture, and How Should We Compare Cultures?

7.Institutions and practices

  • permeate cultures undoubtedly have profound psychological effects
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Psychology and Anthropology
  • One wants to know how the mind works and how cultural processes interact with psychological processes, one has to get close to the phenomena.
  • examine their cultural presuppositions and to investigate whether psychological processes identified in the West also operate in other cultures
conclusion1
Conclusion
  • Do not just study how other cultures differ from the United States but explore what they are intrinsically