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Psychological Disorders. Chapter 13 George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D. Department of Psychology North Carolina A&T State University. Abnormal Behavior. Criteria of Abnormality statistical rarity interference with normal functioning personal distress deviance from social norms

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psychological disorders

Psychological Disorders

Chapter 13

George S. Robinson, Jr., Ph.D.

Department of Psychology

North Carolina A&T State University

abnormal behavior
Abnormal Behavior
  • Criteria of Abnormality
    • statistical rarity
    • interference with normal functioning
    • personal distress
    • deviance from social norms
  • Abnormal (definition)
    • term used to describe behavior that is rare or dysfunctional, causes personal distress, or deviates from social norms
  • Insanity
    • legal ruling that a person accused of a crime is not held responsible for that act; defined in most states as the inability to tell the difference between right and wrong at the time the crime is committed
models of abnormal behavior
Models of Abnormal Behavior
  • Medical model
  • psychological models
    • psychodynamic model
    • behavioral model
    • cognitive model
    • sociocultural model
  • biopsychosocial model
classifying and counting psychological disorders
Classifying and Counting Psychological Disorders
  • DSM-IV - diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
  • labeling
  • prevalence - percentage in the population with the disorder
  • incidence - rate of new cases reported in a population
anxiety disorders
Anxiety Disorders
  • Anxiety- general feeling of apprehension characterized by behavioral, cognitive, or physiological symptoms
    • phobias
    • panic disorder
    • generalized anxiety disorder
    • obsessive-compulsive disorder
somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders
  • Somatoform disorders - disorders involving physical complaints that do not have a known medical cause but are related to psychological factors
    • hypochondriasis
    • somatization disorder
    • conversion disorder
dissociative disorder
Dissociative Disorder
  • Dissociative disorder - disorders affecting a function of the mind, such as memory for events, knowledge of one’s identity, or consciousness
    • dissociative amnesia
    • dissociative fugue
    • dissociative identity disorder
      • (multiple personality disorder)
mood disorders
Mood Disorders
  • Depression
    • Symptoms: sadness, reduced energy, lack of interest in activities, sleep disturbances, eating disturbances, excessive crying, possible thoughts of suicide
  • Dysthymic disorder (dysthymia)
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
  • Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive)
  • Cyclothymic disorder (cyclothymia)
causes of mood disorders
Causes of Mood Disorders
  • Biological explanations
    • Genetic
    • Neurotransmitters
  • Psychodynamic explanation
  • Cognitive and behavioral explanations
    • Learned helplessness – belief that one cannot control outcomes through one’s actions
      • Hopelessness – belief system and the way they explain the situation
      • Arbitrary inference – conclusion drawn in the absence of supporting information
  • Schizophrenia
    • Psychotic disorder characterized by positive symptoms (excesses) such as delusions, hallucinations, and fluent but disorganized speech or negative symptoms (deficits) such as flat or blunted affect
symptoms of schizophrenia
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Positive symptoms
    • Delusions, hallucinations (auditory, visual, somatosensory), disturbed emotions, loose associations, word salad, clang associations (i.e., eating wires and lighting fires)
  • Negative symptoms
    • Poverty of speech, poverty of content, avolition (difficulty making decisions), flattened affect, social withdrawal, apathy,
subtypes of schizophrenia
Subtypes of Schizophrenia
  • Catatonic
    • Unusual motor symptoms
  • Disorganized
    • Incoherent speech, inappropriate affect
  • Paranoid
    • Delusions of persecution or grandeur, auditory hallucinations
  • Residual
    • No delusions, hallucinations, or incoherent language, but continuation of social withdrawal and odd beliefs
  • Undifferentiated
    • Diagnosis that do not fit other subtypes
causes of schizophrenia
Causes of Schizophrenia
  • Genetic (strong link)
  • Neurochemical (overactive dopamine)
  • Enlarged ventricles
  • Smaller thalamus
  • Stress and environmental factors
personality disorders
Personality Disorders
  • Personality disorders
    • Class of disorders marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress or impaired social and occupational functioning
personality disorders cont
Personality Disorders – cont.
  • 1. Anxious / fearful
    • Avoidant personality disorder
      • A pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation
    • Dependent personality disorder
      • A pattern of submissive and clinging behavior related to an excessive need to be taken care of
    • Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
      • A pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and control
personality disorders cont17
Personality Disorders – cont.
  • 2. Odd / eccentric
    • Schizotypal personality disorder
      • A pattern of acute discomfort in close relationships, cognitive or perceptual distortions, and eccentricities of behavior
    • Paranoid personality disorder
      • A pattern of distrust and suspiciousness such that others’ motives are interpreted as malevolent
personality disorders cont18
Personality Disorders – cont.
  • 3. dramatic / impulsive
    • Histrionic personality disorder
      • A pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking
    • Narcissistic personality disorder
      • A pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy
    • Borderline personality disorder
      • A pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity
    • Antisocial personality disorder
      • A pattern of disregard for, and violation of the rights of others
etiology of personality disorders
Etiology of Personality Disorders
  • Lack of inhibitions (biological predisposition)
  • Dysfunctional family
  • Learned behavior
sexual disorders
Sexual Disorders
  • Gender identity disorder (transsexualism)
    • Sexual disorder characterized by a person’s belief that he or she was born with the wrong biological sex organs
  • Paraphilia
    • Sexual arousal by objects or situations not considered sexual by most people
  • Fetishism
    • Paraphilia involving sexual arousal by unusual objects or body parts
sexual disorders paraphilias
Sexual Disorders – Paraphilias
  • Exhibitionism – compulsion to expose one’s genitals in public
  • Fetishism – nonhuman object preferred for sexual arousal
  • Frotteurism – sexual arousal by rubbing nonconsenting persons
  • Klismaphilia – sexual arousal linked to giving or receiving enemas
  • Mysophilia – arousal from presence or use of filth
  • Necrophilia – pleasure from viewing or having contact with a corpse
  • Pedophilia – sexual relations with children as preferred method
  • Sexual sadism and masochism – sexual gratification linked to pain
  • Transvestic fetishism – arousal by wearing opposite-sex clothing
  • Voyeurism – desire to watch others having sexual relations
  • Zoophilia – sexual activity with animals