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Answer of Unit 1.2. 7.8

Answer of Unit 1.2. 7.8

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Answer of Unit 1.2. 7.8

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  1. Answer of Unit 1.2. 7.8

  2. Unit 1 Learning a Language • Warming Up • We are all very familiar with learning languages as we began to learn our mother tongue since our birth. Because of that many people always take it for granted that learning a language is like learning how to ride a bicycle and that people who use the same language usually understand each other very well. In fact, however, those two opinions are both wrong. Then • 1. What’s the difference between learning a language and learning to ride a bike? • 2. Is it easy for people using the same language to well understand each other?

  3. When we talk about learning a language like English, Japanese or Spanish, we speak and think as though the language in question were a fixed unchanging thing. We expect to learn it as we learned geometry or how to ride a bicycle – systematically, and with clear ultimate success. Many people subsequently give up when they discover just what a misconception this is. They have in fact embarked on an activity that could last the rest of their lives. The experience makes them realize that they are not only going to have to work very hard indeed if they want to succeed, but also that they are – in many cases – barely masters of the language they call their own “mother tongue”.

  4. Studying any language is, in fact, an endless voyage. Each of the thousands of languages currently used in the world is a complex affair. Many languages do have a standard form – particularly on paper – and this is what we learn, but they probably also have a variety ofregional dialects and social styles, and many are the products of the historicalmingling of other languages. The English language is just such a hybrid. It began its career just under two thousand years ago as a form of ancient German, collided with a special kind of old French, was subjected to several waves of Latin and a flood of Greek, and since then has acquiredbits and pieces of every other language that its users have ever been in contact with.

  5. A second common misconception about language is that words have fixed and clear meanings. This is – fortunately or unfortunately – far from true. Take even the apparently simple and specific English word man. It seems clear enough; it refers to “an adult male human being”. Of course it does, but just consider for a moment the following sentences: • 1) There are several men missing in that chess set. • 2) The boat was manned entirely by women and children.

  6. You might argue that these sentences are somewhat unnatural; certainly, they do not represent the everyday core meaning of the word man. They are, however, legitimateextensions of that core meaning, the second being especially interesting because it is a verb and not a noun, and suggests that we expect adult male human beings to serve as the crews of ships, not women and certainly not children. Part of the pleasure and genius of language may well arise out of this slight “misuse” of words. After all, if you call a person a cat or a cabbage, no literal identification is intended, but a great deal of meaning is nevertheless conveyed.

  7. A third misconception about language claims that every language is – or should be – equally used and understood by all its practitioners everywhere. Certainly, users of the standard forms of English in the United Kingdom generally understand their equivalents in the United States; the degree of similarity between these two major forms of English is great. Dialect-users in these countries, however, have serious problems understanding each other, to the extent that they may wonder if they are actually using the same language. Someone form Brooklyn, New York, will have trouble with a Cockney form London; and old-style British Army colonel won’t do well in discussions with a Californianflower-boy. Yet they all belong within the vast community of 20th century World English.

  8. 参考译文: • 当我们谈论语言学习,像英语、日语或西班牙语等的学习时,我们的言谈和思维都透露出我们所谈论的语言好像是一种固定不变的东西。我们期望学习语言像学习几何学或学习如何骑自行车一样――系统地学习,最终目标明确。很多人当发现这只是一个错误的想法时随后就放弃了。他们实际上踏上了一条能持续一生的旅程。这种经历使他们不仅意识到如果他们想成功他们就得非常努力,还意识到在多数情况下他们几乎不可能成为他们自称为是自己母语的语言的精通者。

  9. 实际上,学习任何语言都是一条没有止境的航行。世界上现在所用的上千种语言中的任何一种都是非常复杂的。很多语言确实有标准形式,尤其在书面上,而且这也是我们所学习的;它们可能还有各种各样的地方性方言和不同的社会形式,不仅如此,有很多还是其它语言的历史混合的产物。英语就是这样一种混合语言。英语两千年前是以古德语的形式存在的,然后受到古法语的冲击,又受到一些拉丁语和希腊语的影响;之后,由于英语的使用者又接触到其他一些语言,英语又受到那些语言的零零碎碎的影响。实际上,学习任何语言都是一条没有止境的航行。世界上现在所用的上千种语言中的任何一种都是非常复杂的。很多语言确实有标准形式,尤其在书面上,而且这也是我们所学习的;它们可能还有各种各样的地方性方言和不同的社会形式,不仅如此,有很多还是其它语言的历史混合的产物。英语就是这样一种混合语言。英语两千年前是以古德语的形式存在的,然后受到古法语的冲击,又受到一些拉丁语和希腊语的影响;之后,由于英语的使用者又接触到其他一些语言,英语又受到那些语言的零零碎碎的影响。

  10. 关于语言的另外一个错误的看法是认为每个词都有明确固定的意思。这一点远非如此。就拿那个非常简单特定的英语单词man来说吧, 这个词的词义似乎足够明确了,指的是成年男性。当然是这样,但是,考虑一下下面的句子: • 1) There are several men missing in that chess set. • 2) The boat was manned entirely by women and children. • 你可能会争辩说这些句子有点不正常;当然,它们并不代表单词man的日常核心意思。然而它们也是其核心意思的合理引申;句子2)里的man尤其有意思,因为它是一个动词而非名词,并且暗示了我们期望成年男性来充当船上的工作人员,而不是妇女,当然更不是孩子。语言使用的聪明之处和乐趣就部分地来自于这种词的“无用”。毕竟,如果你叫一个人猫或白菜,并没打算表达猫或白菜的字面意思,但是很多隐含的意义已经传递出来了。

  11. 第三个对语言的误解声称每种语言都是――或应该是――被其各地的使用者同样应用和理解的。当然,在英国英语标准形式的使用者通常都理解其美国标准形式的使用者;英语的这两种主要形式有很大的相似度。然而,这两个国家的方言使用者却很难理解彼此,以致于他们会怀疑他们是否使用的是同样的语言。比如,一个从纽约布鲁克林来的人会很难理解一个伦敦佬;一个旧式的英国军队的上校会无法和一个加利福尼亚的嬉皮士进行讨论。但他们都属于这个20世纪世界英语的大社区。第三个对语言的误解声称每种语言都是――或应该是――被其各地的使用者同样应用和理解的。当然,在英国英语标准形式的使用者通常都理解其美国标准形式的使用者;英语的这两种主要形式有很大的相似度。然而,这两个国家的方言使用者却很难理解彼此,以致于他们会怀疑他们是否使用的是同样的语言。比如,一个从纽约布鲁克林来的人会很难理解一个伦敦佬;一个旧式的英国军队的上校会无法和一个加利福尼亚的嬉皮士进行讨论。但他们都属于这个20世纪世界英语的大社区。

  12. Unit 1 Language points • 1. in question: being discussed or involved at present • e.g. Where is the man in question? 我们谈论的这个人在哪里。 • She was so tired that she couldn’t listen carefully to the problems in question.她太累了以至于无法集中精力听正在讨论的问题了。 • 2. embark on: start to do sth.; set about; be engaged in doing sth. • e.g. He is about to embark on a new business venture.他就要开始新的商业冒险活动。 • They embark on a campaign to get people to vote. 他们展开一场动员人们投票的运动。

  13. 3. a variety of: all kinds of • e.g. With the economic development, the market is full of a great variety of commodities, where people can get whatever they want. 随着经济的发展,市场充满了各种各样的商品,在那儿人们可以得到任何他们想要的东西。 • In China there are in variety of regional dialects. 中国有各种各样的方言。 • 4. be subjected to: experience; undergo (in this phrase “to” is a preposition ) • e.g. Not subjected good family cultivation, the boy has got into many bad habits.由于没有受到良好的家庭教育,这个孩子养成了很多坏习惯。 • They were subjected to the enemy attack.他们遭到敌人的进攻。

  14. 5. bits and pieces 零零碎碎的东西 • e.g. I make it from some bits and pieces I found in the shed.我用在木房里找到的零星碎片做成了这玩意儿。 • The thief made a confession in bits and pieces. 窃贼吞吞吐吐作了招供。 • 6. to the extent that: 到……程度 (to some extent: in a certain degree 在一定程度上) • e.g. She works very hard to the extent that she has no idea of what is happening around her.她用功到对她周围所发生的事情一无所知的程度。

  15. I. Reading Comprehension • According to the text, answer the following questions. • 1. When people talk about learning a language, they usually expect to learn it as they learn geometry or how to ride a bicycle , which are learned systematically, with clear ultimate success. In other words, they tend to think that language is a fixed unchanging thing. • 2. They may eventually discover their view of language learning is wrong. Language learning is a life-long activity, and requires very hard work if they want to succeed. • 3. Studying a language is an endless voyage because any natural human language is a complex affair with many varieties of regional dialects, social styles and a long historical heritage. • 4. The English language has mingled with many other languages in its development. It originated from a form of ancient German, was later mixed with Old English and was influenced by many other languages such as Latin and Greek.

  16. 5. The purpose of the two examples is to indicate that the meaning of a word is not always the same. Words may generate meanings that are legitimate extensions of their core meaning. • 6. Unnatural though it may seem to some people, a slight “misuse” of words can give them extra meanings which are legitimate extensions of their core meanings. It is part of the reason why language is so wonderful and pleasurable. • 7. This is an open-ended question. To help the students sort out the ideas discussed in the text, the teacher can put the tree misconceptions on the board. Ask the students for opinions as to how they may be proved wrong. For example, for the first misconception that language learning is just like learning geometry or something like it, with clear ultimate success, the following points may be drawn from the text: work hard and be patient in one’s language study, be systematic and realistic in planning one’s study, etc.

  17. II. Match the following words in Column A with the Chinese meaning in Column B. • 1. e 2. d 3. g 4. b 5. c 6. a 7. f • III. Use the following given words and phrases to produce sentences in the way as is shown in the model. • 1. a. The land on both sides of the Yellow River was subjected to floods. • b. Years ago, black children were subjected to discrimination in may schools. • 2. a. Your work is far from satisfactory. • b. Far from admiring his paintings, I dislike them • 3. a. Their quarrel arose out of money. • b. Tom and Mary had a heated discussion, which arose out of their different personalities.

  18. 4. a. The girl is too young to convey her ideas coherently. • b. Her smile conveyed her satisfaction with her daughter’s performance. • 5. a. husband and wife had trouble trusting each other to the extent that they intend to live apart. • b. They are very good friend to the extent that they stay together all the time. • IV. Vocabulary and structure • 1. A 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. D 9. A 10. B • V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. • 1. subsequently 2. equivalent 3. legitimate 4. Identification • 5. convey 6. variety 7. collides 8. subsequently • VI. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. • (omitted)

  19. VII. Translate the following sentences into English, using the words in the brackets. • 1. The government hopes to gain enough support for the project in question. • 2. Many experts have embarked on the study of a new universal language. • 3. He could only find some bits and pieces in the kitchen. • 4. Their quarrel arose out of a small joke. • VIII. Summarize the main idea of the text. • The article discusses three aspects of language learning, while trying to clear up three related misconceptions, which are, language can be learned systematically with clear ultimate success; words have clear-cut and fixed meanings; and people of the same language background speak the same variety everywhere. The message of the article is that learners should be aware that language is not a fixed unchanging thing, therefore learning a language is, in fact, a lifelong task.

  20. Unit 2 Biotechnology As we all know, science and technology is closely related to our daily life for its advances will bring about higher-level living standard for us human beings; in other words it is vital to our human lives. Can you find three examples of changes in people’s lives brought about by advances in science and technology? Can you tell when an advance in science and technology is good and when bad?

  21. While the computer has had a profound effect on society in so many ways, there are other new technologies that are changing, or could change, our lives no less dramatically. One of these is the new science of biotechnology. Virtually unheard of thirty years ago, biotechnology is considered by many to be the most important development of the late twentieth century. It falls into three main areas: genetics, embryology and microbiology.

  22. Genetics is the study and manipulation of genes in plants and animals. From the moment that each living thing – plant or animal – comes into being, its characteristics are strictly determined. Its shape, size, color, intelligence are all the result of a set of instructions contained in every cell of its body. These instructions are in the form of a “code”, its genes, passed on from parent to offspring. The genes themselves are arranged on a long chain in a complex chemical known as DNA. To understand DNA is to understand the secret of life; to be able to alter DNA is the basis of the new science of genetic engineering.

  23. The implications of this are dramatic. Using genetic engineering, it is possible to produce plants and animals that have particular desired characteristics: to grow plants, for example, that are resistant to disease, or which yield an extra large crop, or grow in difficult conditions; or again, to breed animals that are good meat or milk producers – even to breed entirely new animals. • Such plants or animals can be created not only once, but also, from a basic genetic model, in endless numbers of identical units – a process known as “cloning”.

  24. Genetic science does also have a relevance for human beings. Many diseases and handicaps are hereditary, that is, are passed on from one generation to the next through genes. Identifying the presence of harmful genes in unborn children or potential parents, a technique known as “genetic screening”, is already possible and widely done. Thus a doctor can now inform parents who are expecting a child that it will be born handicapped, effectively giving them the choice of whether to go ahead with the birth or not. Similarly, a couple thinking of marriage could be screened for potential genetic problems. With the growing threat of the disease of AIDS, genetic screening is becoming more and more of a daily reality.

  25. The second major area of biotechnology is embryology. Here, one technique in particular has attracted special attention: the fertilization of human eggs outside the body. In vitro fertilization (IVF) – or in more popular language, the conception of “test tube babies” – allows a woman unable to give birth in the normal way to have some of her eggs removed, fertilized in the laboratory by her partner’s sperm, and re-implanted in her uterus, where they would have the chance to develop naturally. It is a technique which therefore offers hope to many couples who would otherwise remain childless.

  26. IVF and related techniques like AI (artificial insemination) create moral and legal problems because they allow, within limits, any egg to be fertilized by any sperm and implanted in any body. Thus a woman’s egg may be fertilized by sperm other than her partner’s, drawn from what is usually called a “sperm bank”; alternatively, it is possible for an egg other than a woman’s own to be implanted in her body – a process known as “surrogate motherhood”. • The third area of biotechnology is that of microbiology, the study of bacteria (microbes) and in particular, their use in industrial processes.

  27. Bacteria are tiny organisms which cause unpleasant spots on your face and turn milk sour. So far, not very useful. But the number and variety of bacteria are enormous and, using genetic engineering, even more can be created. Some of these can do things which have the most positive advantages to man: there are bacteria, for example, capable of producing oil, or “eating” toxic waste, or helping to manufacture plastic. The coal industry in Britain is currently looking into microbes that will liquefy coal, making it possible to pump it to the surface instead of mining it in the traditional way. There is even talk of bacteria able to convert sunlight intoelectrochemical energy; these are called “biological solar cells”.

  28. 参考译文:当计算机在如此多的方面对社会产生影响的时候,还有其它一些新技术也在戏剧性地改变着,或能够戏剧性地改变,我们的生活。其中之一就是新科学生物工程学。生物工程学三十年前实际上根本没听说过,而现在却被很多人认为是20世纪后期最重要的发展。它分为三个主要领域:遗传学,胚胎学和微生物学。参考译文:当计算机在如此多的方面对社会产生影响的时候,还有其它一些新技术也在戏剧性地改变着,或能够戏剧性地改变,我们的生活。其中之一就是新科学生物工程学。生物工程学三十年前实际上根本没听说过,而现在却被很多人认为是20世纪后期最重要的发展。它分为三个主要领域:遗传学,胚胎学和微生物学。 • 遗传学是对动植物中的基因进行研究和控制。从每个生物――动物和植物――形成那一刻起,它的的特征就被严格地确定了。它的形状,大小,颜色,以及智能都是它身体里每个细胞中所包含的一套指令的结果。这些指令以代码的形式存在,代码的基因是上代传给下代的。这些基因被安排在DNA的长链上。了解了DNA就了解了生命的秘密; 能够改变DNA是遗传工程新科学的基础。

  29. 其意义是巨大的。运用遗传工程学,有可能生产出具有特殊的令人满意的特征的动植物:比如,抗病的植物,或产出超大庄稼的植物,或在恶劣环境下也能生长的植物;又或者养殖具有优质肉产出优质奶的动物――甚至培养出全新的动物。其意义是巨大的。运用遗传工程学,有可能生产出具有特殊的令人满意的特征的动植物:比如,抗病的植物,或产出超大庄稼的植物,或在恶劣环境下也能生长的植物;又或者养殖具有优质肉产出优质奶的动物――甚至培养出全新的动物。 • 这样的动植物不仅能被创造一次,还能从一个基本的基因模型创造出无数个同样的单位――这一过程就被成为“克隆”。 • 遗传科学还和人类息息相关。许多疾病和残疾都是遗传性的,也就是说,是通过基因代代相传的。有一种新技术,就是鉴别出未出世孩子或即将为人父母的人身上存在的有害基因,已经称为可能并被广泛采用了,这种新技术被称为“基因甄别”。通过这项技术,医生就能通知快生孩子的父母他们的孩子是否先天残疾,有效地让他们及时做出选择是否要这个孩子。同样地,考虑结婚的一对男女也可以进行这项新技术检查,以确定是否存在基因问题。随着艾滋病对人类的威胁越来越大,基因甄别这项技术对日常生活越来越不可或缺。

  30. 生物工程学的第二个主要领域就是胚胎学。其中有一项技术尤其引人注意:体外受精。IVF――或者用更大众的话来说就是试管婴儿――可以让一个不能生育的妇女的卵子被取出在实验室接受受精,再被植入其子宫内,在那里受精卵有机会自然成长。这项技术使许多不能生育的夫妇有了希望。生物工程学的第二个主要领域就是胚胎学。其中有一项技术尤其引人注意:体外受精。IVF――或者用更大众的话来说就是试管婴儿――可以让一个不能生育的妇女的卵子被取出在实验室接受受精,再被植入其子宫内,在那里受精卵有机会自然成长。这项技术使许多不能生育的夫妇有了希望。 • IVF和一些相关的技术,像人工受精,也引发了道德和法律方面的问题,因为在一定限度内,它们允许任何卵子被任何精子受精再被植入任何一个子宫内。这样,一个妇女反而卵子可能被不是她丈夫的精子的精子受精,精子来源于精子库;或者,有可能一个别人的卵子,而不是她自己的,被植入这个妇女的子宫――这一过程被称为“代理母亲”。 • 第三个领域是微生物学,是研究细菌,尤其是研究细菌在工业过程中的应用。 • 细菌是一种微小的有机体,能使你的脸上长斑,或使牛奶变酸,到目前为止,还不是太有用处。但是,细菌的种类和数量都非常多,并且如果运用遗传工程学种类和数量还会更多。有些细菌可被用来做对人类有利的事情:比如,有细菌能产油,或消化有毒废物,或帮助生产塑料。英国的煤炭工业现正在研究能使固态煤液化的微生物,以便能把煤用泵抽出来,而不是采用传统方式将其开采出来。甚至还有谈论说细菌能将太阳光转化成电化能量,这种细菌被称为生物太阳细胞。

  31. Unit 2 Language Points • 1. fall into: be divided into 分成 • e.g. This passage falls into three parts with each part having its own general idea. 这一节分为三个部分,每个部分各有自己的大意。 • Biotechnology falls into three main area: genetics, embryology and microbiology.生物工程学分为三个主要领域:遗传学、胚胎学和微生物学。 • 2. be resistant to: 对……有抵抗力的(in this phrase “to” is a preposition) • e .g. The scientists are making studies on a plant resistant to disease. 科学家正在研究一种抗病植物。 • This kind of material are resistant to externally applied pressure.这种材料可以抵抗外来压力。

  32. 3. relevance: the relation of something to the matter at hand 有关,重大意义 • have a relevance for: be significant/important to; be related to 对……重要, 与……有关 • e.g. The teacher is explaining to her students that studying hard has a relevance for their future work.老师正在给学生们解释努力学习对将来的工作非常重要。 • The research and development of this technology does have a relevance for the economic growth in a sustainable way. 这种技术的研发确实经济的可持续增长很重要。 • 4. other than:being different from that or those first considered不同于, 除了. • e.g. All parts of the house other than the windows were in good condition.除了窗户,房子的其它部分都好好的。 • Do other than to accept. 只有接受。 • There’s nobody here other than me.除了我这里没有人。

  33. I. Reading Comprehension • According to the text, answer the following questions. • 1. Biotechnology falls into three main areas: genetics, embryology and microbiology. They are concerned respectively with the study and manipulation of genes in plants and animals, the fertilization of human eggs outside the body and the study of microbes and their use in industrial processes. • 2. When a living thing comes into being, its characteristics, including shape, size, color and intelligence are determined by the genes passed on to it from its parents. • 3. DNA is a complex chemical which carries a long chain of genes. To understand DNA is to understand the secrets of life; to be able to alter DNA is the basis of the new science of genetic engineering. • 4. DNA is the basis of genetic engineering. And genetic engineering makes it possible to produce plants or animals that have particular desired characteristics or even to breed entirely new types of animals in endless numbers known as “cloning”.

  34. 5. Genetic science can help to identify the presence of harmful genes in unborn children or in potential parents so that many hereditary diseases and handicaps can be prevented from being passed on t the next generation. • 6. “Test tube babies” refers to the fertilization of human eggs outside the body. The process is to have some of a woman’s eggs removed from her body and fertilized in the laboratory by the sperm of her partner or of somebody else, and then re-implanted in her uterus. • 7. IVF offers hope to many couples who would otherwise remain childless. But this technique may also create moral and legal problems because a woman’s egg could be fertilized by sperm other her partner’s or implanted in a body other than her own. • 8. Microbiology, the study of bacteria, could find its use in industrial processes, for example, to manufacture plastic, to liquefy coal underground so that it could be pumped up to the surface, and to convert sunlight into electrochemical energy.

  35. II. Match the following words in Column A with the Chinese meaning in Column B. • 1. g 2. f 3. e 4. d 5. b 6. c 7. a • III. Use the following given words and phrases to produce sentences in the way as is shown in the model. • 1. a. Having tried virtually all means of transport, the Americans find riding a bicycle is the best way of travelling in this city. • b. The twins are so alike that virtually it is impossible to tell them. • 2. a. The teacher explained to students that study has a relevance for their work. • b. The tough environmental regulations have a relevance for every person. • 3. a. We went ahead with the management system even though facing difficulties. • b. The mathematical problems must be examined every time you go ahead with the next step.

  36. 4. a. Solving this problem is in particular difficult. • b. The Chinese dialects are so different that their speakers, in particular those in the south, find it hard to understand each other. • 5. a. Yesterday Tom was looking into a question at home all day long. • b. The government is looking into a project that could benefit the public. IV. Vocabulary and structure • 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. D • V. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary. • 1. resistant 2. relevance 3. implanted 4. profound • 5. potential 6. identical 7. converted 8.yielded • VI. Translate the following sentences into Chinese. • (omitted)

  37. VII. Translate the following sentences into English, using the words in the brackets. • 1. The business of this company falls into two types: commercial electric appliances and household electric appliances. • 2. Through biotechnology, a new type of tomato has been bred which is resistant to disease. • 3. The sofa, when unfolded, can be converted into a bed. • 4. Within limits, the higher the temperatures are, the quicker the chemical reaction will be. • VIII. Summarize the main idea of the text. • The passage briefly introduces biotechnological information about genetics, embryology and microbiology and explains how these new sciences will influence the life of human beings. Respectively, the three areas of modern biotechnology will enable human beings to produce new living things as desired, carry out artificial insemination, and make use of bacteria to the advantage of humans.

  38. Unit 8 Future Cars • Cars are familiar to us as they are our vehicle which can carry us to any place we want to go at any time convenient to us. And as we all know, cars have been developed very rapidly in recent years. With such rapid development, let’s guess, what would the future car be like? What comfort would it bring to us?

  39. Still busy with the toast and marmalade, the motorists of the 21st century is already prepared for the day’s drive. From the breakfast table a remote control device has opened the garage door, unlocked the car and set the air-conditioning: a split-level system, giving cool air to the face and warmth to the feet, with pre-chosen temperatures.

  40. Our driver lives in Hastings and has a business call in Northampton. There is no need to look closely at a battered old road atlas to work out a route. A video disc is on hand to slot into the fascia provide step-by-step instructions, either on a screen, or by voice, or both. Arguments about whether we should have turned left at the traffic lights when we went right will be no more.

  41. The disc stores enough information to offer a choice of routes and to print out maps, of regions, or towns or individual streets. During the journey the car radio will be automaticallyinterrupted with the latest news of traffic hazards – fog, roadworks, accidents. If necessary, the disc can be called upon to suggest another way round. • The car’s fascia will be simpler than it is now, but capable of yielding more complex information. Before setting off, a button is pushed to give a visual check list of the health of the components – brakes, lights, tyres, batteries.

  42. Speed limits will surely still be with us in the next century. The old-fashioned speedo will have given way to a head-up display reflected at the foot of the windscreen: no need to take one’s eyes off the road. We shall all be used to digits by then and instead of the analogue, a single figure will tell us whether it is time to slow down.

  43. It is raining hard on the way to Northampton but the windscreen stays clear without the aid of wipers. The glass used for the screens of today has been replaced by water-repellent plastic. The rear screen will not have wipers for the same reason. All the windows will incorporate tiny heating elements that automatically activate when the temperature falls below a certain level, so that visibility is not impaired by frost or ice.

  44. Much more startling to 1985 eyes is the absence of a steering wheel. Steering is no longer mechanical but electronic, requiring only a hand controller situated between the front seats. This will also have button to operate the accelerator and brakes. Gone, too, is the clutch: there are no gears to change.

  45. The console-mounted controller overcomes the problems of driving on the other side of the road when the car goes abroad. The driver simply shifts over into the passenger seat. The fascia displays are clipped to a continuous rail and can be moved as required. • The eagle-eyed will spot that there are no outside door mirrors. In the cause of good aerodynamics (of which more in a moment) they have been eliminated and instead the car is equipped with a small video camera which gives the driver a complete picture of what is happening on the road behind. Door handles have also gone: doors are opened by remote control, perhaps contained in the driver’s credit card.

  46. Going round London on the M25 (surely it will be finished by then?) our driver suddenly remembers an urgent telephone call. Does he pull off at the next junction and find a phone box? Of course not: a push of a button and a voice asks for the number, the driver speaks it and the computer does the rest. No coins, no handset: the change is debited automatically to the driver’s account. • Brakes will be radar-assisted, automatically slowing the car down when it is getting too close to the vehicle in front and removing a basic cause of that late 20th-century horror, the motorway pile-up. Collisions of a less serious kind – backing into another car while parking, clipping the edge of a narrow gateway – can be averted by sensors which warn the driver when he is about to make contact.

  47. 参考译文:21世纪的驾车者,尽管早晨还在忙着吃烤面包加果酱,但已经准备好驾车出发了。在餐桌旁,驾车者就已经用一个遥控器打开了车库门,打开车锁并打开空调;空调是一个错层系统,通过预先选定的温度,可以让脸感受凉风而让脚感受暖风。参考译文:21世纪的驾车者,尽管早晨还在忙着吃烤面包加果酱,但已经准备好驾车出发了。在餐桌旁,驾车者就已经用一个遥控器打开了车库门,打开车锁并打开空调;空调是一个错层系统,通过预先选定的温度,可以让脸感受凉风而让脚感受暖风。 • 我们的驾车者住在黑斯廷斯,在北安普敦有一个商业会议。 驾车过程中,司机没有必要仔细查看破旧的地图册以确定路线,旁边就有一个嵌在汽车仪表盘上的录像盘,它能提供逐步指令,或显示在屏幕上,或通过声音,或声像并用。关于我们应该在交通灯出左转的争论将不复存在。

  48. 录像盘储存了足够的信息可供司机选择路线,打印地区或城镇地图,甚至每条街道的地图。行程中,汽车广播会自动插入最新的交通危险新闻――雾,道路施工,交通事故。如果必要,;录像盘还会被要求建议另一条路线。录像盘储存了足够的信息可供司机选择路线,打印地区或城镇地图,甚至每条街道的地图。行程中,汽车广播会自动插入最新的交通危险新闻――雾,道路施工,交通事故。如果必要,;录像盘还会被要求建议另一条路线。 • 汽车的仪表盘将壁现在的更简单,但却能够提供更负责的信息。汽车出发前,按下一个按钮,就可以视频检测各个零部件――刹车,车灯,电车――的安全性。 • 下个世纪,速度限制仍然存在。过时的速率计将会被挡风玻璃底部反射的平视显示器所代替:再没有必要将视线从道路上移开。到那时,我们都将习惯于数字,不是一串数字,而只是一个数字就能告诉我们是否该减速了。

  49. 去北安普敦的路上下着瓢泼大雨,但挡风玻璃没有玻璃清洁器的自动清洁依旧干净。因为今天用的那种玻璃将被防水塑料所取代。同样,汽车后部的玻璃也被替换了。而且,所有的车窗都讲包含微小的热元素,当车内温度降到一定水平,它们就会被自动激活,以保证汽车的能见度不会因霜雪儿降低。去北安普敦的路上下着瓢泼大雨,但挡风玻璃没有玻璃清洁器的自动清洁依旧干净。因为今天用的那种玻璃将被防水塑料所取代。同样,汽车后部的玻璃也被替换了。而且,所有的车窗都讲包含微小的热元素,当车内温度降到一定水平,它们就会被自动激活,以保证汽车的能见度不会因霜雪儿降低。 • 更让生活在1985年的人们吃惊的是,汽车将不再有方向盘。方向确定不再是机械操作而是电子操作,仅仅需要一个位于前车座之间的手动控制器。刹车和油门也是通过按钮来控制的。离合器也不存在了:这样也就没有排挡需要变换了。 • 装有控制板的控制器解决了国外开车要走马路另一边的问题。司机指需要换坐到副驾驶的位置就可以了。仪表盘显示被扣在一个连续横杆上,可根据需要自由移动。

  50. 观察敏锐的人还会注意到没有外车镜了。为了空气阻力更小(有时会更小),外车镜被摘除,相反地,车内安装了一个小的摄像机,以便司机完全看到后面路上的情况。车把手已被去掉了:车门开关由遥控器控制,遥控器可能被安装在司机的信用卡上。观察敏锐的人还会注意到没有外车镜了。为了空气阻力更小(有时会更小),外车镜被摘除,相反地,车内安装了一个小的摄像机,以便司机完全看到后面路上的情况。车把手已被去掉了:车门开关由遥控器控制,遥控器可能被安装在司机的信用卡上。 • 驾驶着M25(到那时可能已经完成制作了),我们的司机突然想起要回复一个紧急电话。他需要在下一个交叉口停车找一个电话亭打电话吗?当然不用:按一下按钮,一个声音询问电话号码,司机告诉它之后,余下的事情就有计算机来处理了。没有硬币,没有听筒,费用自动记入司机的账户上。 • 刹车将是雷达辅助式的,当汽车与前面车辆的距离太近,它会自动减慢汽车速度,从而排除20世纪末多车相撞事故的基本诱因。轻微的汽车相撞――比如停车时倒车撞到别的车,夹到狭窄的入口处――都可以通过传感器避免,因为快接触时传感器会自动向司机提出警告。