Sir Francis Drake was • an English slave trader and pirate who raided Spanish possessions in South America. • an English explorer who led an expedition to locate the "Northwest Passage.“ • the Italian mapmaker for whom the continents of the western hemisphere were named. • the founder of the colony of Jamestown.
The Beginnings of Colonial America (chap. 2) • Purpose: To gain an understanding of • the background of English colonization in continental North America • the earliest successful English colony in continental North America, the “Southern” aka Chesapeake region (Virginia and Maryland) • the founding and early development of the Carolinas and Georgia • Major problems faced in the Chesapeake, and the other Southern colonies • Timeframe: the 17th century (mostly)
Europeans colonize North America • In the 16th and 17th centuries, the main focus of European colonization was the Caribbean, South, and Central America. • Spain conquered the largest American empire.
North America was colonized by less powerful European nations, like France, Holland, Sweden, and England. • Chapter 2 & 3 focus on the two earliest regions of English colonization in North America: the Chesapeake and New England.
The Spanish Armada was • destroyed by a combination of "nimble" English ships and severe weather off the coast of Ireland. • aided in its attack on England by storms known as "the Protestant wind." • the most successful Spanish military expedition of the seventeenth century. • the beginning of the decline of England's naval power.
English Migration to North America • In the long run, the English colonies proved more successful than others. • The main reason for this was the great number of migrants that left England in the 17th and 18th centuries. 214,000
The English monarch most responsible for defining the Protestant reformation in England was • Mary of Scotland. • James II. • Charles I. • Elizabeth I.
Edward V, and Richard III 1483-1485 (War of Roses). 1 3 2
Eng. Civil War 1653-1658 Glorious Revolution 1688
Which of the following tenants was rejected by the Calvinists • papal supremacy • veneration of saints • clerical celibacy • all of the above
Jamestown was established and settled by • a joint-stock company. • Puritans. • coastal fishermen from New England. • Elizabeth I.
Reasons for English Migration • Demographic reasons: • Population growth • Internal migration to cities • Economic reasons: • Decline in real wages • Farm enclosures • Mercantilism • Joint stock companies • English power increase: • Victory over the Spanish Armada, 1588 • Religious unrest (HenryVIII, Bloody Mary, Eliz.I, Mary of Scotland)
the Chesapeake (southern) colonies The Founding of Jamestown, • In 1606, King James I granted overlapping land grants in Virginia to two joint-stock companies, the Virginia company of London and the Virginia company of Plymouth.
The Plymouth company‘s attempt in modern-day Maine was a failure. • In 1607, the Virginia company of London sent 144 colonists to Virginia. Only 104 even survived the journey. • In an area the local Native Americans called Tsenacomoco, these survivors founded Jamestown, in modern-day Virginia.
Jamestown: “Starving Times” • The Jamestown colony had big trouble surviving. • Many colonists did not want to work in agriculture, hoping to find precious metals instead. • Many expected the local Indians to feed and serve them. • Bad hygenic conditions, (swampy land) led to various illnesses.
The primary export of the Virginia Colony was . • cotton. • tobacco • flax. • wheat.
Captain John Smith JAMESTOWN 1607 John Rolfe
The Pocahontas Myth • Pocahontas was the daughter of Powhatan. • She “saved“ John Smith in a mock execution ritual. • During the first Anglo-Powhatan war (1610-12), the settlers kidnapped her and held her captive for several years.
During this time she agreed to marry John Rolfe, one of the leading settlers. • So why is this important? click me
Of the original 104 settlers, only 38 survived the first winter.John Smith, a soldier of fortune, took over the colony‘s leadership in 1608, imposing military discipline and improving conditions. After he left the colony in 1609, discipline collapsed again. • In the second “starving time”, of 1609 400 of 500 died.
Virginia: Native American Relations • The Jamestown colonists had landed in a Native American power struggle. • Powhatan, the leader of a powerful confederacy, hoped to get the English on his side. • The English could provide various militarily and economically useful goods. a drawing of a 17th century Virginia Native American
Initially, relatively good cooperation between the English and the Native Americans. • Until the English no longer needed the Amerinds. • Three Anglo-Powhatan Wars: 1610-14, 1622-32, 1644-46. Powhatan confederacy crumbled afterwards.
Virginia: Economic Development • Since Virginia was conceived as a mercantilist venture, it needed to make a profit.
All of the following were problems faced by the early settlers of Jamestown EXCEPT • The colonists often faced starvation due to lack of supplies and lack of farming skills. • There were not enough gentlemen and specialized craftsmen to provide leadership for the colony. • The colony was located in a malaria and typhoid infested area. • Local Indians were unpredictable and often hostile toward the colonists.
John Rolfe found a profitable staple crop: tobacco. • Initially, tobacco was hugely successful. The crop shaped Virginia‘s way of life. • Tobacco was Land and Labor intensive. Dispersed plantations, not compact villages, and slavery were the result.
Early Colonial Tobacco 1618 — Virginia produces 20,000 pounds of tobacco. 1622 — Despite losing nearly one-third of its colonists in an Indian attack, Virginia produces 60,000 pounds of tobacco. 1627 — Virginia produces 500,000 pounds of tobacco. 1629 — Virginia produces 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco.
Virginia: Labor • Tobacco cultivation was very labor intensive, but labor was in short supply. Planters therefore turned to indentured servants as a solution. • Indentured servants were single young men and women who came to America, especially Virginia, mainly in the 17th century. • Instead of paying their passage, they agreed to work for a fixed term, usually seven years. Their contracts could be bought and sold.
The colony that was established as a Catholic refuge was • Maryland. • Delaware. • Massachusetts. • New Jersey. • Vatican City
For every servant a planter brought to Virginia, he received extra land. This was called the “headright” system. • However, hard work, harsh treatment, and disease resulted in a devastating mortality rate of more than 40% in the first year. • So why after 1660, were indentured servants increasingly replaced by African slaves?
The tobacco boom did not last. • After 1660, only the so-called “First Families“ (FFV) did well.
Maryland • In 1632, Charles I gave Cecilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore) a colonial charter. • In 1634, Maryland was founded, the first colony without a starving time.
Originally intended as a haven for Catholics, Protestants dominated Maryland. • The 1649 Religious Toleration Act passed to protect CATHOLICS from growing Protestant groups. • Maryland soon became a tobacco-growing colony much like Virginia.
Under the headright system, • a colonist received 50 acres of free land for every person for whom he paid passage to Virginia. • serious crimes were punished by decapitation. • a head tax was levied on every adult man and woman in the colonies. • the wealthiest males in the colony were allowed to go first (at the head) of community processions.
Other “southern colonies” • S. Carolina 1670 • Most slave intensive colony (rice, indigo, tobacco) • Tied to the West Indies (Barbados) • STRICT aristocracy • N. Carolina 1653: • Rebels, Squatters, Malcontents (Scots-Irish) • Georgia 1733: • Buffer colony with Spanish Fla. • Paternalistic philanthropic experiment • Failed due to over control and lack of incentives
Carolina • Carolina was granted to a group of proprietors in 1663. • North Carolina was settled starting in 1665 by Virginians, and became much like Virginia. • South Carolina was settled by colonists from Barbados. Its staple was rice and it was similar to the West Indies colonies. • The split into North and South was formalized in 1729.
Which of the following is true of slavery in the English colonies? • The Dutch first introduced slavery to the Virginia colony in 1618. • By the time of the American Revolution, most colonies had outlawed slavery. • Most of the slaves in North America lived in the new England colonies. • Since slavery was common in England, it also was a basic feature of all the colonies.
Georgia • Founded in 1732, Georgia was not a Restoration colony. • Proprietor James Oglethorpe intended a debtor colony, a military outpost against Spanish Florida. • Savannah was designed with its military purpose in mind. • Originally, alcohol and slavery were forbidden. • In 1752, Georgia became a royal colony, growing rice and allowing slavery like S. Carolina. a sketch of Savannah
Start of Chapter 3 Was religious persecution a major “Push Factor” in the colonization of English America?
Early New England society would best be described as • a society with no interest in liberties or rights. • competitive in nature. • communitarian in nature. • open and liberal.
Puritans believed that a person's salvation depended on • good works. • following the teachings of the church. • God's covenant of grace. • chance.
All of the following religious groups followed Calvinist principles except • Lutherans. • Presbyterians. • Puritans. • Huguenots.
Martin Luther asks a question • How to make the Gospels and the Old Testament reconcile???? • He became convinced that the church had lost sight of what he saw as several of the central truths of Christianity — the most important being the doctrine of justification by faith alone. • Luther's study of theology was based on the via moderna, or "modern way," it emphasized on the one hand the all-powerful will of God and, on the other hand, human being's ability to contribute toward their salvation through Faith. • Lutherans did not accept this. They were accused of Antinomianism: the charge of religious lawlessness, for how could God’s will be fulfilled if everyone had “Grace”, and could do whatever they want. influenced Grace is the the idea of the elect, people saved regardless of what they did.
Relics are objects considered to be holy and the viewing of which considered meritorious, allowing the viewer to receive relief from temporal punishment for sins in purgatory. By 1509 the Elector "already owned 5,005 of them, including several vials of the milk of the Virgin Mary, straw from the manger [of Jesus], and the entire corpse of one of the innocents massacred by King Herod • Luther said of his excommunication by the Pope: "As for me, … I do not wish to be reconciled with her; or even to hold any communication with her. Let her condemn and burn my books; I, in turn …will condemn and publicly burn the whole pontifical law, that swamp of heresies.“ In 1545, Luther wrote a pamphlet entitled, Against the Papacy Established by the Devil, and during his life became known for diatribes against the papacy.