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Chapter 4. Consumer Perception. Consumer Perception. What Is Perception?. The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world “How we see the world around us”

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Consumer Perception

Consumer Perception


What is perception
What Is Perception?

  • The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensation into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world

  • “How we see the world around us”

  • Two individuals may be exposed to the same stimuli but recognize, select, organize and interpret them differently based on their own needs, values and expectations


Chapter 4

  • Consumer perceptions are vital to marketers and often underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

  • In order to understand how perception affects the marketing process, we need to understand some of the basic concepts that underlie the perceptual process


Three concepts related to perception
Three Concepts Related to Perception underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

  • Exposure

    • The act of deliberately or accidentally coming into contact with stimuli

  • Attention

    • The allocation of mental capacity to a stimulus

  • Sensation

    • Responses of the sensory receptors to a stimulus and transmission of this information to the brain


Sensation
Sensation underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

  • Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to simple stimuli

  • The human organs that receive sensory inputs are called sensory receptors


Sensory systems

Eye underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

Ear

Nose

Mouth

Skin

Sight

Sound

Smell

Taste

Touch

Exposure toRaw Data

Processingof Inputs

Interpretationof Inputs

Sensory Systems


Vision
Vision underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

  • Vision is the dominant human sense, so we know more about it than the other senses

  • Vision is known to stimulate physiological changes

    • Warm hues (red, orange) increase blood pressure and heart rate

    • Cool hues (blue, green) have the opposite effect

  • Orange is used in fast food restaurants to increase hunger

  • Blues and greens are used in hospitals to reduce patient anxiety


Smell
Smell underlie the success or failure of products in the marketplace

  • Smell is the most direct of the senses

  • No sense evokes memory more than smell

  • Exposure to odors remembered from childhood can induce mood effects like those experienced in childhood

  • Marketers understand this and build mood effects into products through odors


Chapter 4


Taste
Taste and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Taste has an obvious impact on the success of food and beverages

  • North Americans appear to have a preference for fatty foods

  • Thus the success of fast food and pizza restaurants

  • Culture plays a powerful role in determining taste


Sound
Sound and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Sound, in the form of speech and music, is important to marketers

  • Research shows a positive connection between the use of popular songs in ads and consumers’ recall of those ads

  • Research also shows a positive connection between music and store sales and a negative connection between noise and sales


Touch
Touch and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Physical contact with a product often provides consumers with vital information


Input variation and sensation
Input Variation and Sensation and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Changes in what we feel, hear, see, etc. at any given time

  • As input increases, the ability to distinguish differences decreases

  • As input decreases, the ability to distinguish differences increases


Chapter 4

  • Perceptual overloading and the amount of time spent in a store: the inability to perceive all competing stimuli for one’s attention

  • Perceptual vigilance: the ability to disregard much of the stimulation one receives

  • Consumers easily ignore ads when bombarded by them constantly


Perceptual selection
Perceptual Selection and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Each day consumers are surrounded by stimuli

  • They are able to subconsciously exercise selectivity over which stimuli they perceive

  • Which stimuli are selected depend on two major factors

    • Consumers’ previous experience (what they are prepared to see)

    • Their motives (needs, desires, interests, etc.)


Some important concepts regarding selective perception
Some Important Concepts Regarding Selective Perception and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Selective Exposure

    • Consumers actively seek out messages they find pleasant or are sympathetic to and avoid painful or threatening ones

  • Selective Attention

    • Consumers exercise selectivity over attention given to commercial stimuli; they have a heightened awareness of stimuli that meet needs/interests and minimal awareness of irrelevant stimuli

EnvironmentalStimuli

SelectiveExposure

SelectiveAttention

Perception


Chapter 4

  • Selective Interpretation and the amount of time spent in a store

    • The interpretation of stimuli is also uniquely individual, because it is based on what people expect to see in light of previous experience, their motives and interests


Chapter 4

  • Adaptation Levels and the amount of time spent in a store

    • Indifference to a stimulus to which one has become accustomed

  • Attention Stimulation

    • Placement, timing, and presentation of stimuli so that target consumers are most likely exposed to them


Threshold levels of perception
Threshold Levels of Perception and the amount of time spent in a store

  • Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs (e.g., eyes, ears, etc.) to a stimulus (e.g., an ad, a package, a brand name)

  • Sensation is provoked by changes in sensory input

  • The more stimuli that are present, the greater the change must be, and vice versa (e.g., pin dropping)


Chapter 4


1 the absolute threshold
1. The absolute threshold input (thresholds) of importance:

  • The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation

  • I.e., the lowest level of stimuli at which a person can detect a difference between something and nothing


Chapter 4


2 differential threshold jnd
2. Differential Threshold (JND) consumers “get used to” a stimulus (

  • The minimum change in sensation necessary for a person to detect it

  • 19th century German scientist Ernst Weber discovered that the JND between two stimuli was not absolute, but varied according to the intensity of the first stimulus

  • Weber’s Law thus states that the greater the initial stimulus, the greater the additional stimulus needs to be in order to be noticeable


Implications for marketers
Implications for marketers consumers “get used to” a stimulus (

  • Manufacturers and marketers try to determine the JND for their products

  • There are two primary reasons

  • So that negative changes (e.g., reduction in product size or quality or increases in price) are not noticeable

  • So that product improvements (improved packaging, larger quantities, lower price) are very apparent


Ethical issue
Ethical issue consumers “get used to” a stimulus (

  • Reductions in quantity and size may not be reflected in different packaging

  • Marketers may attempt to differentiate product lines that are minimally different by increasing price differences between the lines

  • Thus consumers perceive the lines as different when they are not


Perception and image
Perception and Image consumers “get used to” a stimulus (

  • The view or portrait of a product, brand, store or company created in consumers’ minds

  • Image is a major factor in consumers’ choice of one brand or store over another


Chapter 4


Subliminal perception
Subliminal Perception consumers “get used to” a stimulus (

  • Research shows that people are stimulated below their level of conscious awareness—they can perceive stimuli without being consciously aware they are doing so

  • Federal Communications Commission was concerned enough to ban it from television and radio

  • http://www.snopes2.com/business/hidden/popcorn.htm


Chapter 4

  • In the 70’s interest was renewed due to claims advertisers were using subliminal embeds in print ads

  • The most common claims involved the use of suggestive symbols in ice cubes floating in a pictured drink

  • Research indicates sexually oriented embeds do not influence consumer preferences

  • Because there is no evidence it works, there are no laws or regulations prohibiting it


Link to subliminal advertising websites
Link to Subliminal Advertising Websites were using subliminal embeds in print ads

http://www.subliminalworld.com/