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Systems Analysis. Requirements determination Requirements structuring Alternative generation & selection. Performing Requirements Determination . Gather information on what system should do from many sources Users Reports Forms Procedures. Performing Requirements Determination .

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Systems Analysis

  • Requirements determination

  • Requirements structuring

  • Alternative generation & selection


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Performing Requirements Determination

  • Gather information on what system should do from many sources

    • Users

    • Reports

    • Forms

    • Procedures


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Performing Requirements Determination

  • Characteristics for gathering requirements

    • Impertinence

      • Question everything

    • Impartiality

      • Find the best organizational solution

    • Relaxation of constraints

      • Assume anything is possible

    • Attention to detail

      • Every fact must fit in with every other fact

    • Reframing

      • View the organization in new ways


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Deliverables and Outcomes

  • Types of deliverables:

    • Information collected from users

    • Existing documents and files

    • Computer-based information

    • Understanding of organizational components

      • Business objective

      • Information needs

      • Rules of data processing

      • Key events


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Methods for Determining Requirements

  • Traditional

  • Modern

  • Radical


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Traditional Methods for Determining Requirements

  • Individual interviews

    • Discover issues with the current system and needs for the future

  • Questionnaires

    • Discover issues with the current system and needs for the future

  • Observation of workers

    • See how data are handled and what information people need to do their jobs

  • Document Analysis

    • Study business policies and rules


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Interviews

  • Gather facts, opinions and speculations

  • Observe body language and emotions

  • Guidelines

    • Plan

      • Checklist

      • Appointment

    • Be neutral

    • Listen

    • Seek a diverse view



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Questionnaires

  • More cost-effective than interviews

  • Choosing respondents

    • Should be representative of all users

    • Types of samples

      • Convenient

      • Random sample

      • Purposeful sample

      • Stratified sample


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Questionnaires

  • Design

    • Mostly closed-ended questions

    • Can be administered over the phone or in person

    • Can be paper or electronic


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Direct Observation

  • Serves as a good method to supplement interviews

  • Often difficult to obtain unbiased data

    • People often work differently when being observed

    • Can observe only a limited amount of time, people and sites


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Analyzing Documents

  • Types of information to be discovered:

    • Problems with existing system

    • Opportunity to meet new need

    • Organizational direction

    • Names of key individuals

    • Values of organization

    • Special information processing circumstances

    • Rules for processing data



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Modern Methods for Determining Requirements

  • Joint Application Design (JAD)

    • Brings together key users, managers and systems analysts

    • Purpose: collect system requirements simultaneously from key people

    • Conducted off-site

  • Prototyping

    • Repetitive process

    • Rudimentary version of system is built

    • Replaces or augments SDLC

    • Goal: to develop concrete specifications for ultimate system


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Joint Application Design (JAD)

  • Participants

    • Session Leader (Facilitator)

    • Users & Managers

    • Sponsor

    • Systems Analysts & IS Staff

    • Scribe

  • End Result

    • Documentation detailing existing system

    • Features of proposed system


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Prototyping

  • Quickly converts requirements to working version of system

  • Once the user sees requirements converted to system, will ask for modifications or will generate additional requests

  • Most useful when:

    • User requests are not clear

    • Few users are involved in the system

    • Designs are complex and require concrete form

    • History of communication problems between analysts and users

    • Tools are readily available to build prototype


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Prototyping

  • Drawbacks

    • Tendency to avoid formal documentation

    • Difficult to adapt to more general user audience

    • Sharing data with other systems is often not considered

    • Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) checks are often bypassed


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Radical Methods for Determining Requirements

  • Business Process Reengineering

    • Search for and implementation of radical change in business processes to achieve breakthrough improvements in products and services


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Analysis Strategies

  • Business Process Automation

  • Business Process Improvement

  • Business Process Re-engineering


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BPR Goals

  • Reorganize complete flow of data in major sections of an organization

  • Eliminate unnecessary steps

  • Combine steps

  • Become more responsive to future change


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Business Process Reengineering

  • Identification of processes to reengineer

    • Identify key business processes

      • Set of activities designed to produce specific output for a particular customer or market

      • Focused on customers and outcome

      • Same techniques are used as were used for requirements determination

    • Identify specific activities that can be improved through BPR


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Business Process Reengineering

  • To identify activities that can be improved through BPR ask:

    • How important is the activity to delivering an outcome?

    • How feasible is changing the activity?

    • How dysfunctional is the activity?



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Results of Requirements Determination

  • Structured according to three views of the information system:

    • Process

      • Data flow diagrams

    • Logic

      • Structured English & Decision tables

    • Data

      • Data modeling