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Russian Federal Space Agency. Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System " Arctica ". Lavochkin Association. State Centre on Space H ydrometeorology "Planeta". 1.

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Russian Federal Space Agency

Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Lavochkin Association

State Centre on Space Hydrometeorology




High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Mission objectives

Monitoring of the Earth atmosphere and surface in Arctic region (inaccessible for observation from geostationary orbit) on the base of multispectral imaging with high temporal resolution (15 – 30 min).

Providing heliogeophysical information in polar areas.

Maintaining data collection system, telecommunication service for data exchange and retransmission.

Search & Rescue service ( COSPAS-SARSAT ).


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Main Tasks and Applications

Utilization for analysis and forecasting :

- weather in the regional (Arctic) and global scales;

- icecoverage in Arctic;

- aircrafts flight conditions (cloudiness, wind, streams and etc.);

- snow cover;

- heliogeophysical conditions

Monitoring of extremal phenomena (natural and antropogenic origin)

Climate changes monitoring

Data collection and retransmission from data collection platforms (ground-, sea- and air-based platforms)

Dissemination of the satellite data, meteorological and heliogeophysical data


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

"Arctica" System General Design

Spacecraft No.2

Spacecraft No.1


program data

Hydro meteorological and helio-geophysical data




Complex for the data receiving, processing and distribution

Ground control



High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

  • Ballistic configuration of the space system

Spacecraft No.2

  • Location of the orbit operational parts:
  • - beginning of the operational part of each spacecraft is 3.2 hours before the apogee passing;
  • - end of the operational part is 3.2 hours after the apogee passing;
  • - relative drift of the orbit operational parts of spacecraft No.1 and spacecraft No.2 equals 6 hours;
  • - provides continuous observation of the arctic territories, located at the latitude, higher than 60оN;
  • - provides continuous radio visibility of the spacecrafts orbit operational parts at the ground stations in Moscow, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk

Spacecraft No.1

  • Parameter of the spacecraft orbits:
  • - apogee altitude (α) ~ 40000 km;
  • - perigee altitude (π) ~ 1000 km;
  • - inclination (i) ~ 63о;
  • - orbital period - 12 hours
  • Positional relationship of the spacecraft orbits:
  • coincidence of ascending node (Ω) of the spacecraft No.1 orbit
  • and descending node ( ) of the spacecraft No.2 orbit
  • Ω

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Benefits of the high- elliptic orbits (HEO) at the Arctic region

  • 1. Providing the quasi-continuous observations for Arctic region (areas at latitudes higher than 60о N).
  • 2. The quasi- continuous observations need no more than 2 spacecrafts

Beginning of the operational part

of High Elliptical orbit

End of the operational part

of High Elliptical orbit

70 - limiting angle of the available observation

Available area for monitoring from HEO

Available area formonitoring from GEO


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Comparison of the Arctic region viewing from the GEO

( "Electro-L") and HEO ( "Arctica" )

2) View from "Arctica " spacecraft

3)View from "Arctica " spacecraft

1) View from "Electro-L " spacecraft

1) The “Electro-L” spacecraft is in the operation position on the geostationary orbit.

2) The “Arctica” spacecraft is approaching to beginning of the operational part of high-elliptic orbit .

3) The “Arctica” spacecraft is approaching to end of the operational part of high-elliptic orbit .

basic geostationary spacecraft electro l

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Basic geostationary spacecraft "Electro-L "

Orbit is geostationary one. Operational position of the spacecraft on geostationary orbit is 76оW.

Spacecraft mass in orbit – 1620kg

Payload mass – 435 kg

Spacecraft orientation – three- axis stabilized platform

Lifetime – 10 years

Launcher – LV " Zenith" with "Fregat-SB"


Launch date –2008

  • Spacecraft structure:
  • payload module, including :
  • - multichannel scanner MSU-GS;
  • - onboard radio engineering complex (OREC);
  • - onboard data sampling system (ODSS);
  • - heliogeophysical instrumentation complex (HPIC);
  • orbital platform on the base of "Navigator " module
basic high apogee spacecraft spectr r

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica"

Basic high-apogee spacecraft "Spectr-R "

Main performances of the spacecraft:


- apogee~ 330000 km;

- perigee~ 600 km;

- inclination~ 51,3°

Orbital mass of the spacecraft – 3660km

Payload module mass – 2500kg

Antenna diameter – 10m

Spacecraft orientation – in three axes

Life – 3-5 years

Launcher – LV " Zenith" with "Fregat-SB"


Launch is planned on 2008

  • Spacecraft structure:
  • Payload module, including:
  • - scientific instrumentation complex on the base of space radio telescope;
  • - high data rate radio complex (VIRK);
  • Orbital platform on base of the “Navigator” module with high energy parameters

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

Principles of design and main parameters of the "Arctica"meteorological spacecraft

Spacecraft "Spectr-R "

Spacecraft "Electro-L "




Orbital platform

Spacecraft "Arctica "

Orbit – High Elliptical:

apogee~ 330000 km;

perigee~ 600 km;

inclination ~ 51о

High Elliptical orbit:

apogee~ 40000 km;

perigee~ 1000 km;

inclination~ 63о

Orbit is geostationary one

Structure of the target instrumentation complex:

- multi channel scanner MSU-GSM;

- heliogeophysical instrumentation complex (GGAK);

- onboard radioengineering complex (BRTK);

- onboard data acquisition system (BSSD-M).

Orbital mass of the spacecraft – 1850kg

Target instrumentation mass - 550 kg

Spacecraft orientation – in three axes

Life – 7 years

Launcher – LV " Soyuz-2(1a) " with

"Fregat " booster


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

  • General view of the "Arctica " spacecraft

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

  • Payload module of the "Arctica " spacecraft

Receiving Antenna NA-1


BRTK Lavochkin Association



Transmitting Directional Antenna NA-4

BRTK Lavochkin Association




Low Gain Antenna BAKIS

Lavochkin Association


Transmitting Directional Antenna NA-2

2 complete sets


BRTK Lavochkin Association

Solar Cosmic Rays

High Gain Antenna


BRTK Lavochkin Association




Installed to the BMSS










Transmitting Directional Antenna NA3


BRTK Lavochkin Association


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

Orbital platform of the "Arctica" spacecraft on the "Navigator" module base

Electrization control system

Automatic control and stabilization complex of the power supply system

Novosibirsky State University

Scientific production centre “Polus”, Omsk


Public corporation

“Izhevsky radiozavod”

Antenna feeder system

Onboard control complex

Propulsion system

Moscow Experimental Design Bureau “Mars”

Onboard cable network, the spacecraft structure

Lavochkin Association, Khimki

Solar array attitude control system

Antenna feeder system

Accumulator battery

Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPP VNIIEM, Moscow

Public corporation

“Saturn”, Krasnodar

Thermal control system

Lavochkin Association,


Solar array

Scientific production association PM, Krasnoyarsk


Correction and stabilisation thrusters


Propulsion system


Onboard equipment



Federal State Unitary Enterprise Experimental Design Bureau “Fakel”, Kaliningrad

Of the command-measuring system, RNII KP, Moscow



High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

Performance characteristics of the MSU-GSM instrument:

Coverage area – whole visible Earth disk (20х20 deg.);

Number of the spectral channels 10 (2 channels – visible band, 8 channels – IR band);

Resolution – Optical Band - 1 км, IR – 4 km;

Survey periodicity (clock round) – 15...30 minutes.


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

Heliogeophysical measurements complex (GGAK-E)

The GGAK-E set includes 7 sensors:

SKIF-6 – spectrometer of the corpuscular emission with particle energy in the following ranges 0,05…20,0 keV; 0,03…1,5 MeV; 0,5…30,0 MeV;

SKL-E– spectrometer of the solar cosmic rays with particle energy in the following ranges 1…12 MeV, 30,0… 300,0 MeV,  350,0 MeV;

GALS-E – detector of the galaxy cosmic rays with particles energy in the range  600 MeV;

ISP-2M – measurements of the solar constant in the range 0,2-100 microns;

DIR-E - measurements of the solar X-rays with energy in the range 3-10 keV;

VUSS-E - measurements of the solar UV radiation at the Hydrogen resonant line НLa (121,6 nm);

FM-E – magnetometer for the magnetic field intensity measurement in the range 300 nanotesla.


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

  • Schedule of the spacecraft activities for the "Arctica" space system

Phase/stage of the Project

Draft Proposal release on the Space System

Presentation of the Draft Proposal. Development of the Project Specification for the Preliminary Design

Release and Presentation of Preliminary Design. Approval of the Project Specifications on the Space System Components

Development of the work documentation on update of the used experimental items and the “Electro-L” and “Spectr-R” spacecrafts models , production of models of the new designed onboard instruments and units of the spacecrafts.

Development of the work documentation on the equipment of Ground Control Complex and Ground Complex on the Data Receiving, Processing and Distribution of the Space Complexes “Electro-L” and “Spectr-R”

Update of the existing onboard and ground hardware and software for the “Arctica” Space system and development of the new ones.

Update of the mockups and experimental models of the Space System. Autonomous and complex testing, update of the work documentation on the flight models.

Production of the hardware, ground autonomous and complex testing of the flight hardware set. Launch of the spacecrafts. Flight tests of the Space System with the spacecraft No.1.

Update of the work documentation using flight tests results and production and launch of the spacecraft No.2.


High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

Cost of the space system establishment

  • The cost estimation includes following items:
  • - cost of the development work on the target instrumentation production……….....................................140 millions of roubles;
  • cost of the development work on the orbital platform
  • production ……….…………………………………….……..220 millions of roubles;
  • - cost of the two flight spacecraft production and their preparation for launch…………….……………………… 1400 millions of roubles;
  • - cost of the Ground spacecraft control complex production establishment …......................................……. 40 millions of roubles;
  • cost of the Ground complex for the data receiving, processing and distribution of the 1st stage……..……… 400 millions of roubles;
  • -------------------------------
  • Total: 2200 millions of roubles

High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

  • Budget expensesfor the "Arctica "
  • system development, millions of roubles
  • 10
  • 70



Costs of the spacecraft delivery to the orbits and risk insurance are not presented in the diagram





High-elliptical Orbits Satellite System "Arctica "

  • Conclusions
  • To a great extent the progress of global and regional numerical weather forecasting, as well as providing safety navigation along Northern Sea Route together with many other Earth monitoring problems depends on the capabilities to provide hydrometeorological information for the Arctic region (at the latitudes higher than 60 deg. N) in quasi-continuous mode with high temporal resolution.
  • 2. Geostationary meteorological satellites cannot provide such information and therefore the proposed "Arctica" system should supplement existing global satellite observation system.
  • 3. Russia has great experience on design and exploitation HEO satellite systems, as well as the technical stock on the development of "Electro-L" and "Spectr-R" type spacecrafts. Based on this Roscosmos and Roshydromet (as responsible Russian governmental bodies) propose to realize "Arctica" project in the frame of wide international cooperation.