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Programming in C++. Objectives. To describe the fundamental characteristics of the object oriented C++ programming language. To introduce the steps necessary for creating a fully functional C++ program. Types of programming languages. Three types of programming languages Machine languages

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Programming in C++

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    1. Programming in C++

    2. Objectives • To describe the fundamental characteristics of the object oriented C++ programming language. • To introduce the steps necessary for creating a fully functional C++ program.

    3. Types of programming languages • Three types of programming languages • Machine languages • Strings of numbers giving machine specific instructions • Example: +1300042774+1400593419+1200274027 • Assembly languages • English-like abbreviations representing elementary computer operations (translated via assemblers) • Example: LOAD BASEPAYADD OVERPAYSTORE GROSSPAY

    4. Types of programming languages • High-level languages • Similar to everyday English, use mathematical notations (translated via compilers) • Example: grossPay = basePay + overTimePay

    5. Some of high-level languages • C++ • Built from pieces called classes and functions • Provides capabilities for object-oriented programming • JAVA • Used to create web pages with dynamic and interactive content • Develop large-scale enterprise applications • Enhance the functionality of web servers • FORTRAN • Used in scientific and engineering applications • COBOL • Used to manipulate large amounts of data • Pascal • Used to teach structured programming

    6. Historical Perspective • The C++ programming language was created by Bjarne Stroustrup and his team at Bell Laboratories (AT&T, USA) to help implement simulation projects in an object-oriented and efficient way. • The earliest versions, “C with classes,” date back to 1980. • C++ was derived from the C programming language: ++ is the increment operator in C. • In 1998 the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) approved a standard for C++ (ISO/IEC 14882).

    7. Characteristics of C++ • C++ is not a purely object-oriented language but a hybrid => you have all the features that are available in C: • Universally usable modular programs • Efficient, close to the machine programming • Portable programs for various platforms.

    8. OOP • C++ supports the concepts of object-oriented programming (or OOP for short) which are: • data abstraction, that is, the creation of classes to describe objects • data encapsulation for controlled access to object data • inheritanceby creating derived classes (including multiple derived classes) • polymorphism (Greek for multiform), that is, the implementation of instructions that can have varying effects during program execution.

    9. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING In traditional, procedural programming, data and functions are kept separate from the data they process. This has a significant effect on the way a program handles data: ■ the programmer must ensure that data are initialized with suitable values before use and that suitable data are passed to a function when it is called. ■ if the data representation is changed, functions must also be modified.

    10. OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Object-oriented programming  object(s) OOP objects combine data (properties) and functions (capacities).

    11. Advantages of OOP ■ Reduced susceptibility to errors: an object controls access to its own data. ■ Easy re-use: objects maintain themselves. ■ Low maintenance requirement: an object type can modify its own internal data representation without requiring changes to the application.

    12. To use a C++ langauge! • C++ programs • Built from pieces called classes and functions • C++ standard library • Provides rich collections of existing classes and functions for all programmers to use

    13. Create and translate a C++ program

    14. Sample program #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { cout << "Enjoy yourself with C++!" << endl; return 0; }