PERIODIASATION Cycles within your training programme
INTRODUCTION Overload & Regeneration • Improvements in an athlete’s ability to tolerate the demands of competition and training are achieved through adaptation to the stress applied in the training programme. • The body adapts to stresssors imposed in training, and thus is more capable of tolerating them during competition. • The positive adaptation process is the result of a correctly timed alternation between stress induction and regeneration. • Negative adaptation is the failure of this to occur due to too much stimulus or too little regeneration Periodisationis a widely used method for structuring training programmes. The basic foundations of periodising a training programme relate back to our understanding of how adaptations take place within the body following the stress placed on body systems during a training session. Periodisation attempts to allow for cycles of stress and recovery on a macro, meso and micro-scale.
The imbalance in homeostasis that has been induced requires the organism to reorganise its functional mechanisms in order to re-establish the previous state of homeostasis.In addition the organism adapts to the stressor such that, if the same stressor were imposed again, it would not be displaced to the same extent again. This process is referred to as Supercompensation. In essence it is how TRAINING works.
Developing a long-term periodised programme • We can apply the same theory to a block of training sessions rather than from just one session to the next. • Each session will induce fatigue and this will be somewhat cumulative over a number of days/weeks. • After a time we can provide a recovery period where the body will make a substantial adaptation to the stressors that have been applied over the pre-ceeding sessions This is the essence of PERIODISATION
A Basic Outline • Matveyev (1981) suggested that the year can be divided into three major periods; which he termed macrocycles. • These cycles are further subdivided into mezocycles (3-6 weeks of training), microcycles (1-week) and training units (individual sessions). • All of which are cyclical and repeated at intervals dependant on the sporting requirements.
Planning the training year • We must take into account a number of factors when we are planning our fitness programmes… • Individual strengths and weaknesses • Dates for competition • Rate of progressive overload • Fitness components necessary for peformance • The fact that a high level of fitness cannot be maintained throughout the year
Phases of Training • Therefore we divide the season into phases… this is periodisation! • There are three main periods • Pre-season: -further divide into the general preparatory (early) and specific preparatory (late) subphases • In-season: -further divided into pre-competitive and competitive subpahases. • Off-Season.
Macro and Micro-cycles • Each of these phases and sub-phases can then further be didveded into smaller parts • Macrocycles – 6 week cycle of training • Microcycles – 1 week of the training schedule
Pre -Season • Emphasis on general fitness during the first subphase (early) • Volume of training is high but intensity is low, slowly increasing • Move toward more game related fitness during the second subphase (late) • Generally lasts from 6 – 16 weeks
In Season • Usually last 3-6 months • Must take into account the demands of the sport and must ensure sufficient time for recovery between competitions • PEAKING for competition on a weekly and seasonal basis must also be considered
Endurance Training • Periodisation of training allows the athlete to gradually build up their training volume and/or intensity, whilst allowing time for regeneration. • Gradual increments of loading can occur, whilst reducing the risk of excessive over-loading and hence injury. Additionally, training of various intensities allows the metabolic systems to develop in parallel. Thereby the anaerobic and aerobic metabolic systems can be used to drive endurance. • The development of endurance may take months and up to years. Strength is required to develop power, as power is equal to the product of force times velocity. Power is important for speed. Frequently, endurance athletes train slow and stay slow. • Maximising strength also enables the body to enhance the firing of impulses to the muscles by the central nervous systems
Example of a periodised 16-week endurance programme Recovery week 2