INTRODUCTION. The Bulk Power Supply Reliability criteria The 2 components Security assessment from operators view Requirements of a reliable electric service NERC Reliability criteria Disturbance-performance table How are they used Security states System operating limits. INTRODUCTION.
INTRODUCTION • The Bulk Power Supply • Reliability criteria • The 2 components • Security assessment from operators view • Requirements of a reliable electric service • NERC • Reliability criteria • Disturbance-performance table • How are they used • Security states • System operating limits
INTRODUCTION • The Bulk Power Supply System • Elaborate, complex, interconnection of power components which make up an interconnected power system. • When we talk about reliability and security of power systems, we are interested in what we call “THE BULK POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM” • The part of the network which connects the power plants, the major substations, and the main EHV/HV lines. • Interruptions in the bulk power supply are very serious - Many users are affected by these interruptions - They can be costly • They are to be avoided, and much effort is spent to do that
2. RELIABILITY CRITERIA Power Systems are built and operated with the following goal: TO ACHIEVE A RELIABLE and ECONOMIC ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY. For the consumer to have a reliable and economic electric power supply, a complex set of engineering analysis and design solutions need to be implemented. Reliability of a power system refers to the probability of its satisfactory operation over the long run. It denotes the ability to supply adequate electric service on a nearly continuous basis, with few interruptions over an extended time period. - IEEE Paper on Terms & Definitions, 2004
Security and Adequacy Security is the ability of the electric systems to withstand sudden disturbances such as electric short circuits or unanticipated loss of system elements. Security of a power system refers to the degree of risk in its ability to survive imminent disturbances (contingencies) without interruption of customer service. It relates to robustness of the system to imminent disturbances and, hence, depends on the system operating condition as well as the contingent probability of disturbances. (IEEE TermsDefs-’04) Adequacy is the ability of the electric systems to supply the aggregate electrical demand and energy requirements of their customers at all times, taking into account scheduled and reasonably expected unscheduled outage of system elements.
Difference between reliability and security • Reliability is the overall objective in power system design and operation. To be reliable, the power system must be secure most of the time. • Security is a time-varying attributes which can be judged by studying the performance of the power system under a particular set of conditions. Reliability, on the other hand, is a function of the time-average performance of the power system; it can only be judged by consideration of the system’s behavior over an appreciable period of time. - IEEE Paper on Terms and Definitions, 2004
Security Overload Security Voltage Security Angle/ Frequency security Trans-former Overload Line Overload Voltage magnitude out of limits Unstable Voltage Frequency instability Rotor angle instability An operator’s view of “security” “Any consequence of a credible disturbance that requires a limit” Static security (our interest) Dynamic security
Another View of “Security” Security = dynamic security Adequacy = static security This view is strongly held by engineers that have been deeply involved with “reliability”assessment tools for planning such as TRELLS, Tplan, etc., which compute probabilistic indices based on static security assessment. They will tell you that their tools are concerned with adequacy, not security. You must note the person’s background who uses the term “Security” in order to understand the meaning being implied.
Our interest REQUIREMENTS OF A RELIABLE ELECTRIC POWER SERVICE • Steady-state and transient voltages and frequency must be held within close tolerances • Steady-state flows must be within circuit limits • Synchronous generators must be kept running in parallel with adequate capacity to meet the load demand • Maintain “integrity” of bulk power network: avoid cascading outages NERC, North American Electric Reliability Corporation: Mission is to ensure reliability of the bulk power system in North America. They develop/enforce reliability standards; assess reliability annually via 10-year and seasonal forecasts; monitor the bulk power system; evaluate users, owners, and operators for preparedness; and educate, train, and certify industry personnel. NERC is a self-regulated organization, subject to oversight by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission & governmental authorities in Canada. It is composed of 9 regional reliability councils & encompasses virtually all power systems in US & Canada. NERC’s activities play an essential role in preventing contingencies and mitigating their consequences.
The Disturbance-Performance Table is the heart of reliability criteria Disturbance
HOW ARE RELIABILITY CRITERIA USED? A) In System Planning or Design • Make decisions on size, type and timing of new generation and transmission facilities • Design transmission network to withstand normal & prescribed abnormal conditions • The latter includes such things as short circuits (faults) followed by loss of major components (to isolate the fault). B) In System Operation • Establish most economic operating conditions under “normal” conditions • Operate the system such that if an unscheduled event occurs, it does not result in violation of reliability criteria. • Establish “Safe Operating Limits” for all situations
Other actions (e.g. switching) Off-economic dispatch Restorative Alert, Not secure Extreme emergency. Separation, cascading delivery point interruption, load shedding Emergency Controlled load curtailment Power system operational “states” & actions (given with respect to credible contingency list) Normal (secure)
Some comments about the previous slide: • The use of criteria ensures (and the diagram illustrates that), for all credible contingencies, the system will, at worst transit from the normal state to the alert state, rather than to a more severe state such as the emergency state or the in extremis state. • If a system is operated according to criteria, the system can transition from normal state to emergency or in extremis state only for a non-credible (extreme) contingency. • When the alert state is entered following a contingency, operators can take actions to return the system to the normal state, but such actions should not include load shedding. • Load shedding should only be performed under emergencies.
System operating limits (SOLs) • System Operating Limits (SOL) are the values of operating parameters (MW, MVar, Amperes, Frequency or Volts) that satisfies the most limiting of the prescribed operating criteria for a specified system configuration to ensure operation within acceptable reliability criteria. SOL are based upon ensuring operating conditions are within pre- and post-contingency… • Facility Ratings • Transient Stability Ratings • Voltage Stability Ratings • System Voltage Limits
Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW System operating limits Question 1: Is it “secure”? Bus 2 300 MW X23=1 X12=1 900 MW X13=1 Bus 1 1200 MW Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied?
Treating power as if it is current…. A very basic relation for power system engineers expresses the real power flow across a transmission circuit as: (1) Here, φ is the angle by which the voltage leads the current and is called the power factor angle. If we assume that electric loads are purely resistive, so that only real power flows in the network, then φ≈0 (φ will not be exactly zero because of line reactance). In this case, eq. (1) is: (2)
A basic fact of power system is that the voltages usually do not deviate significantly from their nominal value. Under a system of normalization (called per-unit), where all voltages are normalized with respect to this nominal voltage, it will be the case that |Vk|≈1.0. As a result, eq. (2) becomes: (3) Treating power as if it is current…. In other words, the numerical value of the real power flowing on the circuit is the same as the numerical value of the currentmagnitude flowing on that circuit (under the system of normalization). Useful conclusion: If we assume voltage magnitudes are all unity, and all loads are purely resistive, then whatever rules we have of dealing with currents also work with real pu power flows! (or Sbase×pu pwr flws)
300 Two good approximations for parallel flows 1. Current division: For 2 parallel paths A and B, power flows on path A according to Bus 2 X23=1 X12=1 900 MW X13=1 Bus 1 900 MW Bus 3
100 Two good approximations for parallel flows 1. Current division: For 2 parallel paths A and B, power flows on path A according to 300 MW Bus 2 X23=1 X12=1 X13=1 Bus 1 300 MW Bus 3
300 MW 100 300 Total=500 200 300 Total=200 Total=700 600 100 Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? 900 MW Two good approximations for parallel flows 2. Superposition: Results of 2 independent calculations will add Bus 2 Bus 1 1200 MW Bus 3
The answer to Question 1: Is it “secure”? Total=1200 Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? YES!!! System operating limits Bus 2 300 MW Lose Cct 2-3! 900 MW Bus 1 1200 MW Bus 3
Total=500 Total=200 Total=700 System operating limits Bus 2 300 MW 900 MW Bus 1 1200 MW Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied? Depends on how flow is increased: assume stress direction of Bus1/Bus3. Desire precontingency limits to reflect postcontingency effects
300 MW 100 333 Total=533 200 333 Total=233 Total=767 667 100 Continuous rating=1200MW Emergency rating=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? 1000MW System operating limits Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied? Bus 2 Bus 1 1300 MW Bus 3
Total=1300 Continuous limit=1200MW Emergency limit=1300 MW IS IT SATISFYING RELIABILITY CRITERIA? It is right at the limit! System operating limits Bus 2 300 MW Lose Cct 2-3! 1000MW Bus 1 1300 MW Bus 3
Total=500 Total=200 Total=700 SOL=767 Answer System operating limits Bus 2 300 MW 900 MW Bus 1 1200 MW Bus 3 Question 2: What is maximum cct 1-3 flow such that reliability criteria is satisfied?
System operating limits It is common to develop x-y plots of operational parameters to communicate system limits. Such plots are called nomograms. They may communicate limits for any kind of security problem (overload, voltage, transient or oscillatory instability) 3000 2800 2600 2400 2200 INSECURE! 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 SECURE! 400 200 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1600 1400 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000