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International Conference on Management of Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors 31 May — 4 June 2010. International Atomic Energy Agency. overview of spent fuel management in china . Deng guoqing China nuclear power engineering co. ltd (CNPE) CNNC. 2010.06.03. content.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1
International Conference on Management of

Spent Fuel from Nuclear Power Reactors

31 May — 4 June 2010

International Atomic Energy Agency

slide2
overview of spent fuel management in china

Deng guoqing

China nuclear power engineering co. ltd (CNPE)

CNNC

2010.06.03

slide3
content
  • the current reprocessing situation and challenges in the world
  • Nuclear energy development strategy and situation
  • Reprocessing policy and current situation
  • The reprocessing and recycling technology development strategy
  • R&D of spent fuel processing technology
  • Challenges
  • conclusion
slide4
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world
  • The selection of a strategy for spent fuel management is a complex decision
  • factors to be taken into account including:
  • politics,
  • economics,
  • resource conservation,
  • environmental protection,
  • and public perception
slide5
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world

three options for management of spent fuel

the one-through cycle

( the direct disposal of the spent fuel in the geologic repository)

the closed cycle

(the reprocessing of the spent fuel, recycling of the reprocessed plutonium

and uranium, and disposal of the wastes from the reprocessing operations)

the so-called “wait and see”

( first storing the fuel and deciding at a later stage on reprocessing or disposal)

slide6
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world
  • The major reasons for choosing the option of reprocessing
    • Separation of valuable material for reuse in the reactor
    • Appropriate conditioning of waste
    • further decrease waste volume and radio-toxicity
main stages of reprocessing
Reprocessing operations

(Shearing - dissolution - separation - purification)

Recyclable

materials

U

Fuels

assemblies

Receiving

Interim storage

Uranium

U

U

Réception

Entreposage

Pu

Hulls and end-fittings

Plutonium

Pu

Pu

Vitrified waste

Coques et Embouts

Waste from facility

operations

Résidus vitrifiés

(CSD/V)

Compacted waste

Final waste

Main stages of reprocessing
slide8
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world

The reprocessing activities and the closed fuel cycle policy have been implemented at present:

China, France, India, Japan, Russia, and UK

U.S.A. also intends to restore the closed cycle policy

slide9
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world

Since the opening of the first Purex plant at Savannah Rover in 1954, the Purex process has been utilized in a variety of flow-sheets and is still being used in all commercial reprocessing plants

Reprocessing using the Purex process has become a mature technology with considerable experience gained from the operation of civil reprocessing plants

slide11
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world
  • The near and medium term challenges for reprocessing :
  • to achieve economic competitiveness through the reduction of the volume and radio-toxicity of the waste destined for ultimate disposal
  • the adaptation of current technologies and plants to meet even more stringent national or international regulation
  • to accommodate fuel performance increases, such as higher fuel burn-ups
slide12
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world
  • The challenges of technical innovations with a number of technical objective, including:
  • more efficient utilization of fissile and fertile materials
  • enhanced proliferation resistance
  • greater reliance on passive safety features
  • technology advances to mitigate the volume and radio-toxicity of high level and long lived wastes
slide13
the current reprocessing situationand challenges in the world

In the near term:

the technologically mature aqueous processing methods constitute the main path forward, while dry processes are considered as adjunct or backup processes

In the longer term:

fuel cycle applications related to advanced reactor concepts( fast reactors, gas cooled reactors, molten salt reactors, etc) may favor the use of pyrochemical processes

slide14
Nuclear energy strategy and situation

the strategic development plan for nuclear energy :

thermal reactor (TR)--fast breed reactor (FBR) -- fusion reactor (FR)

nuclear power medium- long term development program:

40 GWe in 2020(4%)

18 GWe in 2020(under construction )

program will be modified With the requirements of global climate change protocol and of economic development in china

11 units of 6 NPPs in operation and 24 units of 10 NPPs under construction or be approved at present

slide17
the NPP distribution

NP in operation

NP in planning

NP under construction

slide18
Nuclear energy strategy and situation
  • The FBR development strategy :
  • the experimental FBR operation in 2010
  • demonstration FBR construction finished in ~ 2025
  • commercial FBR construction finishedin ~ 2035
slide19
reprocessing policy and situation
  • China adopt the closed fuel cycle policy
  • to meet the requirements of the healthy and sustainable development of nuclear power
  • to master the reprocessing technology
slide20
reprocessing policy and situation

The total accumulated spent fuel up to now

1300 tHM

The projected accumulatedspent fuel for 40GWe program

~7500 tHM in 2020

~13000tHM in 2025

slide21
reprocessing policy and situation
  • A reprocessing pilot plant (RPP):
  • 400kg/d for head and end head
  • 300 kg/d for the chemical separation part
  • the hot test in the early this year
  • The pool storage capacity 550 tHM, and will be extended to 1300 tHM
slide22
reprocessing policy and situation
  • the first large-scale commercial reprocessing plant :
  • in progress
  • The reprocessing capacity: 800 tHM/y
  • the storage capacity: 3000+3000 tHM
  • The projected hot test operation: ~2025
  • Desire to international cooperation to built the plant
  • the more detailed information is shown in the paper
slide23
reprocessing technology development strategy
  • China has determined the development strategy of technical options for reprocessing and recycling
  • option one
  • the proven advanced PUREX process: to recover uranium and plutonium
  • MA and FP entering HLLW : vitrified into solid waste
  • Uranium and plutonium: reused in the thermal reactor
slide24
reprocessing technology development strategy
  • option two
  • the proven advanced PUREX process: to recover the uranium, plutonium and neptunium
  • the HLLW partitioning process: to separate TRU elements, LLFP and the short term heat-generating isotopes such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 , then burn in FR or ADS or disposal
  • Plutonium is reused in the thermal reactor first or then in the FBR
slide25
reprocessing technology development strategy
  • option three
  • the integrated process:
  • recovery uranium, plutonium and neptunium
  • separation of actinide elements and LLFP
  • separation of actinides from lanthanides element
  • Plutonium is reused in the fast reactor
  • MA and LLPF are burn/transmuted in FBR or ADS
slide26
reprocessing technology development strategy

The first large scale spent fuel reprocessing plant:

the proven PUREX process

vitrification for HLLW

Uranium and Plutonium co-precipitation for non-proliferation purpose;

The next reprocessing plant will choose the second or the third option depending on technology development in china

slide27
R&D
  • R& D program to master and enhance
  • the reprocessing technology
  • including :
  • process
  • plant engineering
  • key process equipment and material
  • process measurement and control
  • criticality, radiation, chemical, fire and explosion hazards control and prevention
  • In order to ensure the reprocessing plant operation safe, reliable, and economic
slide28
R&D
  • example of R& D program :
  • triakylphosphine oxides(TRPO) process to remove TRU elements from HLLW
  • CES(crown ether and calixrene crown ether) process for removal of Sr-90 and Cs-137 from HLLW
  • a hot test in pilot scale with genuine HLLW from MPR
  • the R&D for HLLW from the NNP spent fuel reprocessing is being carried out
  • Experiment of Cyanex 301 process for An/Ln separation have been done
slide29
R&D
  • example of R& D program :
  • The advanced Purex process: a salt-free two-cycle Purex process using DMHAN(n,n-dimethyl hydroxylamine) as the reductant for Pu with MMH(methyl hydrazine) as the stabilizer, using AHA (acetohydroxamic acid)complex for uranium purification
  • Study on the advanced integrated process for processing and separation is going on
slide30
Challenges
  • Besides technical challenges faced by the world
  • China has faced the other unique challenges:
  • several kinds of reactor types, such as VVER, M310, CPR, AP1000, and EPR make spent fuel treatment difficulties, especially for spent fuel handling and shearing
  • Due to the complex of the reprocessing technology, There is a long way to go to fully master the reprocessing technology including design, construction, commissioning and operation of the large scale reprocessing plant
  • the dry storage of spent fuel except the Candu reactor is not yet considered, But It is necessary to master the technology and build the dry storage facility to facilitate the choice of the storage type
slide31
conclusion
  • Reprocessing using the Purex process has become a mature technology with considerable experience
  • Challenges for reprocessing are to achieve economic competitiveness, the adaptation of current technologies and plants to meet even more stringent national or international regulations and, to accommodate fuel performance increases
  • China has a ambitious and fast development nuclear power program
  • The nuclear fuel cycle must be suitable for the nuclear energy sustainable development
slide32
Inclusion
  • The Purex process will continue to be dominant in the near term, but the technical requirements to be dealt with will increase in severity with the advent of higher burn-up and Mox fuels.
  • In the longer term, with the implementation of advanced reactors and fuel cycle systems, such as partitioning and transmutation, novel reprocessing technology with total actinide recycle may have to be implemented
  • China has a desire of international cooperation to build the first commercial reprocessing plant with the proven technology based on Purex process
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