petra hoelscher unicef namibia n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Petra Hoelscher UNICEF Namibia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Petra Hoelscher UNICEF Namibia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Petra Hoelscher UNICEF Namibia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 312 Views
  • Uploaded on

Petra Hoelscher UNICEF Namibia. How effective are social grants in supporting families? Tax-benefit model family analysis 3 rd ISCI Conference, York, 27-29 July 2011. 2 nd lowest population density in the world. Some scenery. Highest sand dunes in the world.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Petra Hoelscher UNICEF Namibia' - reed-baker


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
petra hoelscher unicef namibia
Petra Hoelscher

UNICEF Namibia

How effective are social grants in supporting families? Tax-benefit model family analysis 3rd ISCI Conference, York, 27-29 July 2011

slide3

Some scenery

Highest sand dunes in the world

slide5

Poverty rates (USD 1.25) & GDP per capita

Source: World Bank WDI and UNDESA 2009

namibia one of the few african countries with government funded social grant system
Namibia – one of the few African countries with government funded social grant system
  • Basic state grants – universal old age pensions and pension for people with disabilities: N$ 500
  • Child welfare grants – child maintenance grants (mainly for orphans), foster care grants and special maintenance grants (for children with disabilities): N$ 200
  • War veteran grants – for participants in liberation struggle: N$ 2000
  • Contributory social security – provisions for maternity, long term sickness, work-related accidents/illness/death

But system not geared towards poverty reduction

slide7

Vulnerable & Poor Children

STRATEGY & THE HOW

NHIES:

Child poverty profile

Impact of social grants on poverty

Tax-benefit model family analysis:

Visualises child poverty

Potential impact of social grants

Modelling impact of alternative policy options

Social Protection Qualitative Assessment:

How do poor children live?

How do services and systems interact with poor families and their children

Will Better inform programming outcomes

SA Study tour

How it will work in practice

Expected costs, experiences & lessons learned

Administrative processes

Foster Children

Orphaned Children (155,000)

Child Welfare Grants (127,000)

Different policy options

Modelling & costing of alternative policy options

Strategies for gradually phasing in

tax benefit model family analysis
Tax-benefit model family analysis

Mapping out for different typical model families

  • different income levels (formal and informal)
  • income taxes paid
  • social contributions paid
  • social grants received
  • expenditure for child health package (children at different ages)
  • expenditure for education (urban/rural)
  • How much income is left for the family?
  • How far away are they from the poverty line?
  • Can social grants reduce poverty?
  • Alternative policy options
basic assumptions
Basic assumptions
  • Families have one earner
  • Everybody in the formal sector pays tax and social contributions
  • No private pensions & health insurance taken into account
  • Anybody entitled to benefits gets them
  • Child welfare grants paid to orphaned children
  • Education cost include: school development fund, school uniforms (incl. track suits), stationery, extra-curricular activities – costs in urban areas considered higher than in rural
  • Health cost include: annual clinic fees for children for standard health package: immunisation & growth monitoring for infants and U5, bednets for U5, health and dental check-ups for primary school children
  • Costs do not include transport to school or clinics
methodological challenges
Methodological challenges
  • Family structures are very complex and variable (for adults and children in the household), issue of kinship care, incl. for children with both parents alive
  • No reliable data on household composition from census or NHIES
  • Income difficult to estimate, often irregular
  • Analysis focuses on low income jobs, covering majority of population; 51.2% unemployment  many families no income & no income support
  • Analysis applies consumption poverty line to income – home consumption, support from relatives, remittances etc. not taken into account
  • Poverty line comparatively low
how to determine the poverty line
How to determine the poverty line

Poverty line NHIES 2003/04: N$ 262.45 per adult equivalent per month

  • adults, 16 years and over – 1
  • children, 6-15 – 0.75  poverty line: N$ 196.84
  • children, 0-5 – 0.5  poverty line: N$ 131.23

Uprating based on Consumer Price Index

Food index 2003: 121.6 July 2010: 199.4

Adjusted poverty line: N$ 430.4 per adult equivalent per month

  • adults, 16 years and over – 1
  • children, 6-15 – 0.75  poverty line: N$ 322.7
  • children, 0-5 – 0.5  poverty line: N$ 215.2

(Exchange rate: approx. N$ 7 –US$ 1, N$ 10 – 1 €)

case 4 1 pensioner urban 2 u5 1 school age 7 orphans 1 infant 2 u5 4 school age
Case 4: 1 pensioner urban, 2 U5, 1 school age, 7 orphans (1 infant, 2 U5, 4 school age)

poverty line

policy option 1 universal child welfare grants 2 adults 1 infant 1 u5 2 school age urban
Policy option 1: universal child welfare grants2 adults, 1 infant, 1 U5, 2 school age, urban

poverty line

policy option 2 means tested cwg @ n 36 000 p a 2 adults 1 infant 1 u5 2 school age urban
Policy option 2: means-tested CWG @ N$ 36,000 p.a.2 adults, 1 infant, 1 U5, 2 school age, urban

poverty line

summary of results
Summary of results
  • Low income families great difficulties to make ends meet – only family (2 adults, 4 children) with N$ 2500 above poverty line
  • Cost of education prohibitive for many families
  • Tax threshold high enough to protect low income families, social security contributions low enough to be affordable
  • Pensions and child welfare grants can be important contribution to families‘ income – but not reaching low income families
  • Pensions and child welfare grants alone cannot lift families out of poverty
slide19

Vulnerable & Poor Children

STRATEGY & THE HOW

NHIES:

Child poverty profile

Impact of social grants on poverty

Tax-benefit model family analysis:

Visualises child poverty

Potential impact of social grants

Modelling impact of alternative policy options

Social Protection Qualitative Assessment:

How do poor children live?

How do services and systems interact with poor families and their children

Will Better inform programming outcomes

SA Study tour

How it will work in practice

Expected costs, experiences & lessons learned

Administrative processes

Foster Children

Orphaned Children (155,000)

Child Welfare Grants (127,000)

Policy options

Towards an integrated social protection framework for children:

National Development Plan 4

NPA for Children

thank you for more info phoelscher@unicef org
Thank you!

For more info:

phoelscher@unicef.org