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Planning a software project: Function point analysis. José Onofre Montesa Andrés Universidad Politécnica de Valencia Escuela Superior de Informática Aplicada 2003-2004. Function point analysis. ... Is an accepted standard for the measurement of software.

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planning a software project function point analysis

Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

José Onofre Montesa Andrés

Universidad Politécnica de Valencia

Escuela Superior de Informática Aplicada

2003-2004

function point analysis
Function point analysis.
  • ... Is an accepted standard for the measurement of software.
    • IFPUG (International Function Point Users Group).
    • CPM 4.0 de 1994 (Counting Practice Manual)
  • Initially introduced by Albrecht of IBM in 1979.
  • ¿How measure software?

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

function point analysis3
Function point analysis.
  • Can be used in the initial development stages.
  • It’s based fundamentally on “external” characteristics of the software to be developed.
  • Two types of characteristics are sized:
    • Functionality. (data and transactional)
    • General system characteristics.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

counting procedure

Count Data Function Types

Determine Unadjusted Function Point Count

Determine Type of Count

Identify Counting Boundary

Count Transactional Function Types

Calculate Final Adjusted Function Point Count

Determine Value Adjustment Factor

Counting Procedure.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

determine type of count

Function Point Count

Function Point Count

Function Point Count

Function Point Count

Function Point Count

Requirements

Initial Design

Detail Design

Coding

Testing

Implementation

Maintenance

Determine Type of Count.
  • There are three types:
    • Development project function point count
    • Enhancement project function point count
    • Application function point count
  • In development could occur ...

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

identify counting boundary
Identify Counting Boundary
  • The function point counting boundary indicates the border between the project or application being measured and the external applications or user domain.
  • Purpose:
      • The scope of the product being measured
      • Data ownership required for function point counting (owned by one application and/or another)
      • Processing relationships required for function point counting (where processing occurs and purpose)..

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

identify counting boundary7
Identify Counting Boundary
  • Rules:
      • The boundary is determined based on the user's point of view. The focus is onwhat the user can understand and describe.
      • The boundary between related applications is based on separate business functions as seen by the user, not on technological concerns.
      • For enhancement projects, the initial boundary must conform to the boundaries already established for the application or applications being modified.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

identify counting boundary8
Identify Counting Boundary
  • Procedures:
    • Identify the application or project boundary using the boundary rules..
    • Document the following items:
      • The boundary identified
      • The purpose of the count
      • Any assumptions that the count is based on

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

identify counting boundary9
Identify Counting Boundary

MANAGER

DISTRIBUTOR

Distributor_ Dialog

Manager_Dialog

ZipiZape Kiosk System

Client_ Dialog

Clients

CLIENT

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

unadjusted function point
Unadjusted Function Point

Internal

Logical Files

Data

Function Types

External Logical Files

Unadjusted Function Point

External Inputs

Transactional Function Types

External Outputs

External Inquires

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

count data function types
Count Data Function Types
  • Internal Logical Files
      • An internal logical file (ILF) is a user identifiable group of logically related data or control information maintained within the boundary of the application.
  • External Interface Files
      • An external interface file (EIF) is a user identifiable group of logically related data or control information referenced by the application, but maintained within the boundary of another application. This means an EIF counted for an application must be an ILF in another application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

definitions for embedded terms in ilfs and eifs
Definitions for Embedded Terms in ILFs and EIFs.
  • Control Information
    • data used by the application to ensure compliance with business function requirements specified by the user.
  • User Identifiable
    • requirements that an experienced user would define for the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

definitions for embedded terms in ilfs and eifs13
Definitions for Embedded Terms in ILFs and EIFs.
  • Maintained
      • Ability to modify data through an elementary process.
  • Elementary Process
    • the smallest unit of activity that is meaningful to the end user in the business.
    • This elementary process must be self-contained and leave the business of the application being counted in a consistent state

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

internal logical files ilf
Internal Logical Files (ILF)
  • User identifiable group logical related data o control information.
  • It’s different:
    • Work files, spool files,...
    • Files introduced because of technology.
  • Data is maintained by the application being counted.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

ilf identification rules
ILF Identification Rules
  • The group of data or control information is a logical, or user identifiable, group of data that fulfills specific user requirements.
  • The group of data is maintained within the application boundary.
  • The group of data is modified, or maintained, through an elementary process of the application.
  • The group of data identified has not been counted as an EIF for the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external interface files eif

DIAGRAMA DE CONTEXTO

External Interface Files (EIF)
  • Data acceded by the application with a unique objective: obtaining information.
  • Are maintained by other applications
  • This application never actualizes it.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

eif identification rules
EIF Identification Rules
  • The group of data or control information is a logical, or user identifiable, group of data that fulfills specific user requirements.
  • The group of data is referenced by, and external to, the application being counted.
  • The group of data is not maintained by the application being counted.
  • The group of data is counted as an ILF for at least one other application.
  • The group of data identified has not been counted as an ILF for the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

files complexity
Files Complexity

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

data element type det
Data Element Type (DET)
  • Definition: is a unique user recognizable, nonrecursive field on the ILF or EIF.
  • DET Rules
    • Count a DET for each unique user recognizable, nonrecursive field on the ILF or EIF.
    • Count a DET for each piece of data in an ILF or EIF that exists because the user requires a relationship with another ILF to be maintained.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

det rules
DET Rules
  • Count the following physical implementation techniques as a single DET for the entire group of fields:
    • Fields that appear more than once in an ILF or EIF because of technology or implementation techniques.
    • Repeating fields that are identical in format and exist to allow for multiple occurrences of a data value.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

record element type ret
Record Element Type (RET)
  • Definition: is a user recognizable subgroup of data elements within an ILF or EIF.
  • There are two types of subgroups:
    • Optional: user has the option of using one or none.
    • Mandatory: user must use at least one of the subgroups.
  • RET Rules
    • Count each optional or mandatory subgroup.
    • If there are no subgroups, count the ILF or EIF as one RET.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

ilf eif contribution
ILF, EIF Contribution.
  • Internal logical file (ILF)
        • Low 7 Unadjusted Function Points.
        • Average 10 Unadjusted Function Points.
        • High 15 Unadjusted Function Points.
  • External Interface Files (ILF)
        • Low 5 Unadjusted Function Points.
        • Average 7 Unadjusted Function Points.
        • High 10 Unadjusted Function Points.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

transactional function types
Transactional Function Types
  • Transactional function types represent the functionality provided to the user for the processing of data by an application. Transactional function types are defined as external inputs (EIs), external outputs (EOs), and external inquiries (EQs).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external input ei
Processes data or control information that comes from outside the application's boundary. The external input itself is an elementary process.

The processed data maintains one or more ILFs. The processed control information may or may not maintain an ILF.

External input (EI)

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

definitions for processing logic
Definitions for Processing Logic
  • Processing logic is defined as any of the following requirements specifically requested by the user to complete an elementary process:
    • Edits, algorithms, or calculations
    • A reference to or use of an ILF or EIF

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

ei identification rules
(EI) Identification Rules
  • To identify external inputs, look for data or control information that falls within the definition of an external input. The rules are presented in the following paragraphs as
    • Data counting rules
    • Control information processing rules.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

data counting rules must apply
Data Counting Rules (must apply)
  • The data is received from outside the application boundary.
  • The data in an ILF is maintained through an elementary process of the application.
  • The process is the smallest unit of activity that is meaningful to the end user in the business.
  • The process is self-contained and leaves the business of the application being counted in a consistent state.
  • For the identified process, one of the rules must apply:
    • Processing logic is unique from other external inputs for the application.
    • The data elements identified are different from other external inputs for the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

control information processing rules must apply
Control Information Processing Rules (must apply )
  • The control information is received from outside the application boundary.
  • The information is specified by the user to ensure compliance with business function requirements.
  • For the identified process, one of the following two rules must apply:
    • Processing logic is unique from other external inputs for the application.
    • The data elements identified are different from other external inputs for the application.
  • The processed control information may or may not maintain an ILF.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

complexity and contribution definitions and rules ei
Complexity and Contribution Definitions and Rules (EI)
  • The number of external inputs and their relative functional complexity determine the contribution to the unadjusted function point count. Assign each identified EI a functional complexity based on the number of file types referenced (FTRs) and data element types (DETs).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

ftr file types referenced
FTR (file types referenced )
  • A file type referenced is:
    • An internal logical file read or maintained by a function type
    • An external interface file read by a function type.
  • The rules to apply when counting FTRs:
    • Count a file type referenced for each internal logical file (ILF) maintained.
    • Count a file type referenced for each internal logical file (ILF) or external interface file (EIF) read during the processing of the external input.
    • Count only one FTR for each ILF that is both maintained and read by the external input.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

det data element type
DET (data element type )
  • is a unique user recognizable, nonrecursive field maintained on an internal logical file by the external input.
  • The rules to apply when counting DETs:
    • Count a DET for each user recognizable, nonrecursive field maintained on an ILF by an external input.
    • Count a DET for each field that is not entered by the user, but through an external input, is maintained on an internal logical file.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

the rules to apply when counting dets cont
The rules to apply when counting DETs (cont.):
  • Count the following physical implementation techniques as a single DET for the group of fields:
    • A logical field that is stored physically as multiple fields, but is required by the user as a single piece of information.
    • Fields that appear more than once in an internal logical file because of technology or implementation techniques.
    • Fields that indicate an error occurred during processing or confirm that processing is complete.
    • Count a single DET for the capability to specify the action to be taken by the external input.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external input complexity ei
External Input complexity (EI)
  • Low 3 Unadjusted function Points
  • Average 4 Unadjusted function Points
  • High 6 Unadjusted function Points

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external outputs eo
External Outputs (EO)
  • is an elementary process that generates data or control information sent outside the application's boundary.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

rules to identify external outputs must apply
Rules to identify external outputs (must apply )
  • The process sends data or control information external to the application's boundary.
  • The data or control information is sent through an elementary process of the application.
  • The process is the smallest unit of activity that is meaningful to the end user in the business.
  • The process is self-contained and leaves the business of the application being counted in a consistent state.
  • one of the following two rules must apply:
      • Processing logic is unique from other external outputs.
      • The identified data elements are different from other external outputs for the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external output complexity eo
External Output complexity (EO)
  • Low 4 Unadjusted function Points
  • Average 5 Unadjusted function Points
  • High 7 Unadjusted function Points

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external inquiries eq
External Inquiries (EQ)
  • is an elementary process made up of an input-output combination that results in data retrieval. The output side contains no derived data. No internal logical file (ILF) is maintained during processing.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

derived data
Derived Data
  • is data that requires processing other than direct retrieval and editing of information from internal logical files and/or external interface files.
  • Examples include
    • (1) calculating an employee's monthly salary from the hourly rate stored in an ILF
    • (2) totaling the number of employees at a location.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external inquiry identification rules
External Inquiry Identification Rules
  • An input request enters the application boundary.
  • Output results exit the application boundary.
  • Data is retrieved.
  • The retrieved data does not contain derived data.
  • The input request and output results together make up a process that is the smallest unit of activity that is meaningful to the end user.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external inquiry identification rules cont
External Inquiry Identification Rules (cont)
  • The elementary process is self-contained and leaves the business of the application being counted in a consistent state.
  • The processing does not update an ILF.
  • For the identified process, one of the following two rules must apply:
    • The processing logic on the input or output side is unique from other external inquiries in the application.
    • The data elements making up the input or output side are different from other external inquiries in the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

external inquiry complexity eq
External Inquiry complexity (EQ)
  • Assign each identified EQ a functional complexity based on the number of file types referenced (FTRs) and data element types (DETs) for each input and output component.
  • Use the higher of the two functional complexities for either the input or output side of the inquiry to translate the external inquiry to unadjusted function points.
  • Use the same values as in the EI (3,4,6).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

unadjusted function point count calculation
Unadjusted Function Point Count Calculation

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

general system characteristics
General System Characteristics
  • The user function delivered by information systems includes pervasive general factors that are not sufficiently represented by the countable transactional and data functions.
    • There are fourteen (GSC).
    • Evaluated independently and assigned a unique value between 0 y 5.
    • And integrated in the adjusted function point.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

general system characteristics list
1. Data communications

2. Distributed data processing

3. Performance

4. Heavily used configuration

5. Transaction rate

6. Online data entry

7. End-user efficiency

8. Online update

9. Complex processing

10. Reusability

11. Installation ease

12. Operational ease

13. Multiple sites

14. Facilitate change

General System Characteristics list

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

general system characteristic gsc degrees of influence
General system characteristic (GSC) degrees of Influence.
  • 0 Not present, or no influence
  • 1 Incidental influence
  • 2 Moderate influence
  • 3 Average influence
  • 4 Significant influence
  • 5 Strong influence throughout
    • If none fits the application exactly, a judgment must be made to determine which degree of influence applies.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

1 data communications
1. Data Communications
  • The data and control information used in the application are sent or received over communication facilities.
    • Terminals connected locally to the control unit are considered to use communication facilities.
    • Protocol is a set of conventions which permit the transfer or exchange of information between two systems or devices. All data communication links require some type of protocol.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

0 Application is pure batch processing or a standalone PC.

1 Application is batch but has remote data entry or remote printing.

2 Application is batch but has remote data entry and remote printing.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence48
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

3 Application includes online data collection or TP (teleprocessing) front end to a batch process or query system.

4 Application is more than a front-end, but supports only one type of TP communications protocol.

5 Application is more than a front-end, and supports more than one type of TP communications protocol.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

2 distributed data processing
2. Distributed Data Processing
  • Distributed data or processing functions are a characteristic of the application within the application boundary.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence50
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 Application does not aid the transfer of data or processing function between components of the system.

1 Application prepares data for end user processing on another component of the system such as PC spreadsheets and PC DBMS.

2 Data is prepared for transfer, then is transferred and processed on another component of the system (not for end-user processing).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence51
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

3 Distributed processing and data transfer are online and in one direction only.

4 Distributed processing and data transfer are online and in both directions.

5 Processing functions are dynamically performed on the most appropriate component of the system.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

3 performance
3. Performance
  • Application performance objectives, stated or approved by the user, in either response or throughput, influence (or will influence) the design, development, installation, and support of the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence53
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 No special performance requirements were stated by the user.

1 Performance and design requirements were stated and reviewed but no special actions were required.

2 Response time or throughput is critical during peak hours. No special design for CPU utilization was required. Processing deadline is for the next business day.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence54
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

3 Response time or throughput is critical during all business hours. No special design for CPU utilization was required. Processing deadline requirements with interfacing systems are constraining.

4 In addition, stated user performance requirements are stringent enough to require performance analysis tasks in the design phase.

5 In addition, performance analysis tools were used in the design, development, and/or implementation phases to meet the stated user performance requirements.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

4 heavily used configuration
4. Heavily Used Configuration
  • A heavily used operational configuration, requiring special design considerations, is a characteristic of the application. For example, the user wants to run the application on existing or committed equipment that will be heavily used.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence56
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 No explicit or implicit operational restrictions are included.

1 Operational restrictions do exist, but are less restrictive than a typical application. No special effort is needed to meet the restrictions.

2 Some security or timing considerations are included.

3 Specific processor requirements for a specific piece of the application are included.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence57
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

4 Stated operation restrictions require special constraints on the application in the central processor or a dedicated processor.

5 In addition, there are special constraints on the application in the distributed components of the system.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

5 transaction rate
5. Transaction Rate
  • The transaction rate is high and it influenced the design, development, installation, and support of the application.

Número Transacciones

Tiempo

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence59
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 No peak transaction period is anticipated.

1 Peak transaction period (e.g., monthly, quarterly, seasonally, annually) is anticipated.

2 Weekly peak transaction period is anticipated.

3 Daily peak transaction period is anticipated.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence60
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

4 High transaction rate(s) stated by the user in the application requirements or service level agreements are high enough to require performance analysis tasks in the design phase.

5 High transaction rate(s) stated by the user in the application requirements or service level agreements are high enough to require performance analysis tasks and, in addition, require the use of performance analysis tools in the design, development, and/or installation phases.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

6 online data entry
6. Online Data Entry
  • Online data entry and control functions are provided in the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence62
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 All transactions are processed in batch mode.

1 1% to 7% of transactions are interactive data entry.

2 8% to 15% of transactions are interactive data entry.

3 16% to 23% of transactions are interactive data entry.

4 24% to 30% of transactions are interactive data entry.

5 More than 30% of transactions are interactive data entry.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

7 end user efficiency
7. End-User Efficiency
  • The online functions provided emphasize a design for end-user efficiency.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

the design includes
Navigational aids (for example, function keys, jumps, dynamically generated menus)

Menus

Online help and documents

Automated cursor movement

Scrolling

Remote printing (via online transactions)

Preassigned function keys

Batch jobs submitted from online transactions

Cursor selection of screen data

Heavy use of reverse video, highlighting, colors underlining, and other indicators

Hard copy user documentation of online transactions

Mouse interface

Pop-up windows.

As few screens as possible to accomplish a business function

Bilingual support (supports two languages; count as four items)

Multilingual support (supports more than two languages; count as six items)

The design includes:

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence65
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 None of the above.

1 One to three of the above.

2 Four to five of the above.

3 Six or more of the above, but there are no specific user requirements related to efficiency.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence66
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

4 Six or more of the above, and stated requirements for end-user efficiency are strong enough to require design tasks for human factors to be included (for example, minimize key strokes, maximize defaults, use of templates).

5 Six or more of the above, and stated requirements for end-user efficiency are strong enough to require use of special tools and processes to demonstrate that the objectives have been achieved.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

8 online update
8. Online Update
  • The application provides online update for the internal logical files.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence68
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 None.

1 Online update of one to three control files is included. Volume of updating is low and recovery is easy.

2 Online update of four or more control files is included. Volume of updating is low and recovery easy.

3 Online update of major internal logical files is included.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence69
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence

4 In addition, protection against data lost is essential and has been specially designed and programmed in the system.

5 In addition, high volumes bring cost considerations into the recovery process. Highly automated recovery procedures with minimum operator intervention are included.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

9 complex processing
9. Complex Processing
  • Complex processing is a characteristic of the application.
    • Sensitive control (special audit processing) and/or application specific security processing
    • Extensive logical processing
    • Extensive mathematical processing
    • Much exception processing resulting in incomplete transactions that must be processed again, (incomplete ATM transactions caused by TP interruption, missing data values, or failed edits)
    • Complex processing to handle multiple input/output possibilities (multimedia, or device independence)

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence71
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence
  • 0 None of the above.
  • 1 Any one of the above.
  • 2 Any two of the above.
  • 3 Any three of the above.
  • 4 Any four of the above.
  • 5 All five of the above.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

10 reusability
10. Reusability
  • The application and the code in the application have been specifically designed, developed, and supported to be usable in other applications.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence73
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 No reusable code.

1 Reusable code is used within the application.

2 Less than 10% of the application considered more than one user's needs.

3 Ten percent (10%) or more of the application considered more than one user's needs.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence74
Descriptions to Determine Degree of Influence
  • The application was specifically packaged and/or documented to ease re-use, and the application is customized by the user at source code level.

5 The application was specifically packaged and/or documented to ease re-use, and the application is customized for use by means of user parameter maintenance.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

11 installation ease

Antiguo

Nuevo

11. Installation Ease
  • Conversion and installation ease are characteristics of the application. A conversion and installation plan and/or conversion tools were provided and tested during the system test phase.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence76
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 No special considerations were stated by the user, and no special setup is required for installation.

1 No special considerations were stated by the user but special setup is required for installation.

2 Conversion and installation requirements were stated by the user, and conversion and installation guides were provided and tested. The impact of conversion on the project is not considered to be important.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence77
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

3 Conversion and installation requirements were stated by the user, and conversion and installation guides were provided and tested. The impact of conversion on the project is considered to be important.

4 In addition to 2 above, automated conversion and installation tools were provided and tested.

5 In addition to 3 above, automated conversion and installation tools were provided and tested.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

12 operational ease
12. Operational Ease
  • Operational ease is characteristic of the application. Effective start-up, back-up, and recovery procedures were provided and tested during the system test phase. The application minimizes the need for manual activities, such as tape mounts, paper handling, and direct on-location manual intervention.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence79
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence
  • 0 No special operational considerations
    • normal back-up procedure.
  • 1 - 4 One, some, or all items apply.
    • Effective start-up, back-up, and recovery processes were provided, but operator intervention is required.
    • Effective start-up, back-up, and recovery processes were provided, but no operator intervention is required (count as two items).
    • The application minimizes the need for tape mounts.
    • The application minimizes the need for paper handling.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence80
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

5 The application is designed for unattended operation. Unattended operation means no operator intervention is required to operate the system other than to start up or shut down the application. Automatic error recovery is a feature of the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

13 multiple sites
13. Multiple Sites
  • The application has been specifically designed, developed, and supported to be installed at multiple sites for multiple organizations.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence82
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 User requirements do not require considering the needs of more than one user/installation site.

1 Needs of multiple sites were considered in the design, and the application is designed to operate only under identical hw and sw.

2 Needs of multiple sites were considered in the design, and the application is designed to operate only under similar hw and sw.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence83
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

3 Needs of multiple sites were considered in the design, and the application is designed to operate under different hw and sw.

4 Documentation and support plan are provided and tested to support the application at multiple sites and the application is as described by 1 or 2.

5 Documentation and support plan are provided and tested to support the application at multiple sites and the application is as described by 3.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

14 facilitate change
14. Facilitate Change
  • The application has been specifically designed, developed, and supported to facilitate change.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

the following characteristics can apply for the application
The following characteristics can apply for the application:
  • Flexible query and report facility is provided that can handle simple requests; for example, and/or logic applied to one ILF (count as one).
  • Flexible query and report facility is provided that can handle requests of average complexity, for example, and/or logic applied to more than one ILF (count as two items).
  • Flexible query and report facility is provided that can handle complex requests, for example, and/or logic combinations on one or more ILF (count as three items).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

the following characteristics can apply for the application86
The following characteristics can apply for the application:
  • Business control data is kept in tables that are maintained by the user with online interactive processes, but changes take effect only on the next business day.
  • Business control data is kept in tables that are maintained by the user with online interactive processes, and the changes take effect immediately (count as two items).

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

descriptions to determine degree of influence87
Descriptions To Determine Degree of Influence

0 None of the above.

1 Any one of the above.

2 Any two of the above.

3 Any three of the above.

4 Any four of the above.

5 All five of the above.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

total degree of influence tdi
Total degree of influence (TDI)

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

total degree influence tdi
Total degree influence (TDI)
  • Simple Batch application TDI < 15
  • Front end batch application: 15< TDI<30
  • Interactive application: 30< TDI <45
  • Real time, communications, process control: 45< TDI < 60

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

value adjustment factor vaf
Value Adjustment factor (VAF)
  • General System Characteristics are summarized in the VAF.
  • VAF adjust UFPC +/- 35% to produce AFP.
  • VAF = (TDI * 0.01) + 0.65
  • 0.65 <= VAF <= 1.35

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

calculate the three types of function point counts
calculate the three types of function point counts
  • Depending on the objective of the measurement we calculate:
    • Development project
    • Enhancement project
    • Application

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

development project function point calculation
Development Project Function Point Calculation.
  • components of functionality:
    • Application functionality included in the user requirements (project)
    • Conversion functionality included in the user requirements (project)
    • Application value adjustment factor
  • Function Point Formula
    • DFP = (UFP + CFP) * VAF
      • DFP is the development project function point count
      • UFP is the unadjusted function point count
      • CFP is the function points added by the conversion UFPC
      • VAF is the value adjustment factor

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

enhancement project function point calculation
Enhancement Project Function Point Calculation.
  • components of functionality:
    • Application functionality included in the user requirements
    • Conversion functionality
    • Application value adjustment factor

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

enhancement project function point calculation94
Enhancement Project Function Point Calculation.
  • Function Point Formula
    • EFP = [(ADD + CHGA + CFP) * VAFA] + (DEL* VAFB)
      • EFP is the enhancement project function point count.
      • ADD is the unadjusted function point count of those functions that were added by the enhancement project.
      • CHGA is the UFPC of those functions that were modified by the enhancement project. Reflects the functions after modifications.
      • CFP is the function point count added by the conversion
      • VAFA is the VAF of the application after the enhancement project.
      • DEL is the unadjusted function point count of those functions that were deleted by the enhancement project.
      • VAFB is the VAF of the application before the enhancement.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

application function point
Application Function Point
  • Calculation.
    • AFP = ADD * VAF

AFP is the initial application function point count.

ADD is the unadjusted function point count of those functions that were installed by the development project.

VAF is the value adjustment factor of the application.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

estimating the effort
Estimating the Effort
  • We need enterprise historical data
  • Effort = APF * Org_Average(Language)

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

historical data
Historical data

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.

other function point uses
Other function point uses.
  • To check what the client ask for the project and delivered.
  • To check different productivity levels using different tools.
  • To check the quality level produced with different development techniques.

GpiI-2B Planning a software project: Function point analysis.