lecture no 21 public policy extended definitions concepts n.
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Lecture No 21 Public Policy Extended Definitions & Concepts. Fields Associated To It (edu.policy development policy). Values. Public Policy…defined. Locations. COMPLEX AND BROAD CONCEPT. Social Context. Political Perspectives. Needs. Policy.

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public policy defined

Fields Associated

To It


development policy)


Public Policy…defined.



Social Context




  • Derives from the Greek word ‘polis’ (city state) and Sanskrit word ‘pur’ (city).
  • Both combined and used in Latin word as ‘politia’, which means state.
  • ‘Policie’, which means public governance was then used in Middle English.
more definitions
More definitions…
  • A policy is a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve rational outcome(s). The term may apply to government, private sector organizations and groups, and individuals. Presidential executive orders, corporate privacy or human resource policies, and parliamentary rules of order are all examples of policy.
  • Policy differs from rules or law. While law can compel or prohibit behaviors (e.g. a law requiring the payment of taxes on income) policy merely guides actions toward those that are most likely to achieve a desired outcome.
more definitions1
More definitions
  • A set of interrelated decisions taken by a political actor or group of actors concerning the selection of goals and the means of achieving them within a specified situation where those decisions, should, in principle, be within the power of these actors to achieve (Jenkins, 1978).
more definitions2
More definitions
  • The actions of government and the intentions that determine those actions (Cochran et.al).
  • Whatever government choose to do or not to do (Dye, 1998).
more definitions3
More definitions
  • Intentions that guide governmental activities and functions. Also, the sum of government activities, whether acting directly or through agents, as it has an influence on the life of citizens (Peters, 1996).
more definitions4
More definitions
  • Consists of political decisions for implementing programs to achieve societal goals (Cochran and Eloise, 1995).
  • Satu keputusan, persefahaman bersama atau perjanjian yang dicapai melalui proses tolak ansur atau melalui proses politik untuk memangkin proses perubahan yang dapat memberikan kebaikan dan faedah kepada orang ramai yang terlibat (Azahari, 1994).
policy is actually an art and craft
Policy is actually an art and craft……
  • It involves vision, creativity and imagination in:
  • identifying and explaining social problems
  • creating policy to solve the problems
  • ensuring whether the implemented policy

leads to positive or negative impact

common words in those definitions
Common words in those definitions…





eg dasar sosial negara
Eg: Dasar Sosial Negara

dasar pembangunan sosial yang berteraskan nilai-nilai murni dan peningkatan keupayaan insan bagi mencapai kesepaduan dan kestabilan sosial, ketahanan nasional dan kesejahteraan hidup masyarakat Malaysia yang maju serta mantap.



Mewujudkan sebuah masyarakat Malaysia yang maju dan mantap dengan setiap anggota masyarakat berpeluang untuk memperkembangkan potensi diri secara optimum di dalam persekitaran sosial yang sihat berdasarkan ciri-ciri bersatu padu, berdaya tahan, demokratik, bermoral, bertoleransi, progresif, penyayang, adil dan saksama selaras dengan matlamat wawasan 2020.

example of program
Example of program:
  • Meetings of National Social Council held to discuss the nation’s social agenda, direction and plan of actions.
common elements in these definitions
Common elements in these definitions

Policy is made in the name of public.

Policy is made or initiated by government.

Policy is interpreted and implemented by public and private actors.

Policy is what the government intends to do.

Policy is what the government chooses not to do

two important elements of policy
Two important elements of policy
  • Goal(matlamat polisi)

- What is to be achieved by the policy in the long term.

  • Instrument (instrumen polisi)

- Actions taken to achieve the targeted goal/goals of the policy. Includes plans, programs and strategies.

why we need to learn policy
Why we need to learn policy

Simple Answer!

  • Policies have impacts and effects on our lives.
  • When new policies are announced, we are usually curious on the benefits that the policy can provide us.
scope of policy
Scope of policy
  • It is wide and covers from simple to complex policies.






scope of policy1
Scope of Policy

Specific issue


Multiple programs
















Source: Adapted from Haddad.(1995). Educational Policy-planning Process

Factors influencing the scope of policy

scope of policy2
Scope of Policy

As the scope of policy grows wider:

more problems

more difficulty in identifying the real problem

more political involvement

more involvement of interest groups

more systematic analysis

scope of policy3
Scope of Policy
  • Specific issue policy: Short-term decision which involves daily issues and administration.
  • Q: Should women integration policy be concentrated only upon women in rural areas?
  • A: Women integration policy should be concentrated upon women in rural areas, disabled ones as well as career women.
scope of policy4
Scope of Policy
  • Program policy: Development of program/programmes in certain areas.

Q: How and through what means women’s potential and resources could be integrated into the developmental sectors?

A: -Reinforcement of Women Affairs Unit (training and educational programs, to get NGOs and voluntary bodies involvement in giving financial, technical and moral support)

scope of policy5
Scope of Policy
  • Multiple programs: Development of competitive programs
  • Should the efforts to integrate women potentials and resources be concentrated only in traditional sectors, or also in multiple sectors and in alleconomical, social, political and cultural levels?
scope of policy6
Scope of Policy
  • Strategic policy: Decision on critical and crucial policies. Involves huge budget.

Q: How to integrate women in all developmental


A: In accordance to women’s capability and will

to ensure better quality of life, eradication of

poverty, elimination of ignorance and illiteracy

as well as keeping the nation in harmony and


types of policy
Types of Policy
  • Informal
  • Formal
informal policy
Informal Policy
  • A non-written policy applied at individual or small group level. We can also refer to it as norms or practice.
  • It is a consistent practice which guide an individual or a small group on how to utilize their recources, such as time, knowledge, money, relationship etc.
  • Examples: ‘Love the Environment’ etc.
formal policy
Formal Policy
  • A written policy documented at organizational, judiciary or national level. It can be plan of actions, projects, acts, and various public policies.
small group activity
Small Group Activity

Form a group and discuss an informal


  • Why the Policy (Reason)
  • Goal of the Policy
  • The plan of actions/activities (How)?
policy system i ncludes all institutions involved in the formation of policy policies
Policy SystemIncludes all institutions involved in the formation of policy/policies
  • Three interrelated components in a policy system:

The Policy


Environment surrounding

the policy

  • Individuals or groups who are influential in the creation and implementation of certain policies. They influence as well as are influenced by the policies.
  • Individual
  • Political parties
  • Union
  • Government


  • NGOs
  • Corporate bodies
  • Activist
  • Local leaders
  • Informal groups
  • Political analyst.

Their actions and involvement

could create a huge impact at all policy levels, if they are very influential…..

policy environment
Policy Environment
  • The context that revolve around certain policy.
  • It is influenced by and influences the stakeholders and policy.
  • It involves a consultation and bargaining process, where the objective scenario (reality) usually conflicts with the subjective scenario ( needs, wills and opinion of various stakeholders)
policy environment1
Policy Environment
  • It is very much related to the issue of policy itself, in the sense that both policy issue and environment involves ‘CONFLICT’.
  • CONFLICT usually arise due to opinion, political, value, needs differences.