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Introduction to Ecological Pest Management. Origins from IPM - Integrated Pest Management. Different Periods of Civilization. 1. Stone Age, Iron Age - dawn of civilization because of agriculture. 2. Switch from hunting to agriculture and cultural change about 10,000+ years ago.

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introduction to ecological pest management

Introduction to Ecological Pest Management

Origins from IPM - Integrated Pest Management

different periods of civilization
Different Periods of Civilization
  • 1. Stone Age, Iron Age - dawn of civilization because of agriculture.
  • 2. Switch from hunting to agriculture and cultural change about 10,000+ years ago.
  • 3. Mechanical age (1700s)- rise of machines.
  • 4. Chemical age - 1940s - Schradan, organophosphates, DDT & other chlorinated hydrocarbons like chlordane, lindane, etc.
  • 5. Biological/Ecological Age - understanding of ecological processes - Organic Agriculture, identity preserved agriculture.
era of stewardship
Era of Stewardship
  • 1. Rachel Carson’s “Silent Spring” - problem of over reliance on pesticides and a shift to IPM.
  • 2. Based on ecological knowledge, we can learn to live within certain ecological boundaries or “footprint”.
  • 2. How we produce food and grow soil will determine the stability of our civilization.
  • 3. Civilizations that ignored agriculture are now in the dustbin.
integrated pest management
Integrated Pest Management
  • 1. Proper identification of pests in agroecosystem.
  • 2. Defined management unit.
  • 3. Develop pest management strategy based on goals (usually market driven).
  • 4. Develop reliable monitoring techniques.
  • 5. Establish Economic Threshold (ET).
  • 6. Evolve predictive and descriptive models.
ecological pest management
Ecological Pest Management
  • 1. Proper Identification of pests in agroecosystem or ecosystem.
  • 2. Management unit - garden or ecosystem.
  • 3. Pest Management strategy is to use naturally based controls to establish long term control of pests - ecological goal.
  • 4. Develop reliable monitoring techniques.
  • 5. Establish Economic Threshold. (ET)
  • 6. Evolve predictive and descriptive models.
definitions for ipm epm7
Definitions for IPM/EPM
  • Pest - organism that competes with humans for some resource. Many insect/weed/disease pests are of foreign origin.
  • - not all pests are bad; and not all pest damage is bad
  • - tolerate pests - what level can we live with?
  • Pests can be managed.
  • Management is people oriented!
definitions for ipm epm9
Definitions for IPM/EPM
  • Management - ability to influence people; and in this case, it is the people who control the pest - farmers, landowners, park service personnel, etc.
  • Pest Management -
definitions for ipm epm10
Definitions for IPM/EPM
  • Pest Management - intelligent selection and use of pest control tactics.
  • - ensures favorable economic, ecological, and social consequences.
  • Pest control tactics?
definitions for ipm epm11
Definitions for IPM/EPM
  • Pest control tactics:
  • 1) Monitor pest populations
  • 2) Import/Conservation/Release of Beneficials.
  • 3) Pesticides are last resort! Use of selective, biorationals.
  • Or, when you scout:
  • 4) *****No action is necessary!******
definitions for ipm epm12
Definitions for IPM/EPM
  • What is Integrated Pest Management?
  • Optimization of pest control in an ecologically and economically sound manner.
  • Multiple tactics are used to keep pest damage below the Economic Injury Level (EIL) while protecting humans, animals, plants, and the ENVIRONMENT.
  • Viable environment is primary.
integrated pest management13
Integrated Pest Management
  • Originally, many people, from farmers to homeowners followed rigorous spray schedules based on the development of the crop; regardless of whether the pest was there or not - no sampling involved.
  • Resistance - many insects, Aedes mosquitoes - DDT, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin
  • This killed the parasites, pathogens and predators - beneficials were eliminated and pests exploded; plus we got secondary pest resurgence.
  • Environmental contamination - DDT bioaccumulates; other chemicals like endocrine disruptors; herbicides and fungicides (mercury).
pattern of crop protection
Pattern of Crop Protection
  • 1. Subsistence Phase.
  • 2. Exploitation Phase - farmers use chemicals to kill pests; become dependent upon pesticides
  • 3. Crisis phase - resistance, secondary pest resurgence; increased production costs - pesticide treadmill
  • 4. Disaster Phase - collapse of profit/market and also of the existing control program
  • 5. Integrated Control Phase - accept ecological factors into the control plan
concepts of pest management
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agricultural Ecosystem - understand
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem - farmscape
  • C. Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
concepts of pest management16
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agroecosystem -
  • Simpler than a natural ecosystem
  • Less resilient than natural ecosystem.
  • Certain pests have alternate hosts and patterns of infestation that need to be considered.
concepts of pest management17
Concepts of Pest Management
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem:
  • Anticipate pest problems
  • Integrate crop production and protection
  • Farmscaping, beneficial overwintering sites; cover crops and no-till production schemes.
concepts of pest management18
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agricultural Ecosystem - understand
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem - farmscape
  • C. Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
concepts of pest management19
Concepts of Pest Management
  • C. Cost Benefit and Benefit/Risk - pest control decisions have a personal bias.
  • 1. Cost/Benefit - unnecessary treatments versus information - Pest scouting and Cooperative Extension Service Bulletins
  • Information can reduce pesticide use and cost
  • Information can be substituted for pesticides
  • Scouting - more field time, but very effective.
concepts of pest management20
Concepts of Pest Management
  • C. Cost Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • Gain Threshold = Management costs ($/acre) divided by market value ($/unit) equals units per acre.
  • Enterprise Budget for Crop: Broccoli
concepts of pest management21
Concepts of Pest Management
  • C. Cost Benefit and Benefit/Risk Benefit/Risk - social economics of pesticides or other control measures.
  • Relevant Economics versus risk in pest control - Fundamental to Pest Management!
  • Highly toxic pesticides - risks to handlers, workers, environment, and society.
  • Estimated environmental costs of pesticides
  • Economic Injury Level (EIL)
concepts of pest management22
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Economic Injury Level predicts yield loss based on present densities and damage.
  • EIL=C/VID
  • EIL = # insects per production unit
  • C = cost of the management activity/production unit
  • V = market value per unit of yield ($/lb).
  • I = Injury units per pest production unit
  • D = damage per unit of injury.
concepts of pest management23
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Damage versus yield reduction - quantify this - thresholds for allowable damage.
  • Economic Injury Level - is it a pest or not? Estimate of what density that can be tolerated without significant crop loss.
  • EIL-lowest population density that will cause economic damage - *loss caused by pest equals the cost of control*
concepts of pest management24
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Environmental EIL:
  • EIL=PC-EC/VDIK
  • PC = pesticide application costs
  • EC = environmental costs
  • D = yield loss as a function of total crop injury
  • I = crop injury per pest density
  • K = proportionate reduction in injury from pesticide use
concepts of pest management25
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Economic Threshold (ET) - action threshold -
concepts of pest management26
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Economic Threshold (ET) - action threshold -
  • ***Pest density at which control measures should be applied to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the EIL.***
  • ET is always lower than the EIL.
concepts of pest management29
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Determining EIL & ET - complex - bioclimatology, biocontrol, host plant resistance and environmental consequences of applied controls.
  • EIL can vary from area to area, crop variety
  • EIL goes down as crop value goes up; plus consumer standards. Tree fruits, sweet corn,
concepts of pest management30
Concepts of Pest Management
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • Individual Grower’s EIL (no external costs)
  • 1. Amount physical damage is related to various pest densities.
  • 2. Monetary value and production costs of the crop at various levels of physical damage.
  • 3. Monetary loss associated with various levels of physical damage
  • 4. Amount of physical damage that can be prevented by the control measure
  • 5. Monetary value of the portion of the crop that can be saved by the control measure
  • 6. Monetary cost of the control measure.
concepts of pest management31
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agricultural Ecosystem - understand
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem - farmscape
  • C. Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
concepts of pest management32
Concepts of Pest Management
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • Ecological Balance - increase numbers of natural enemies.
  • Natural enemies have to have food in order to stick around - pest residue for natural enemies to be lower than the ET.
  • Suppress pests but don’t annihilate it.
concepts of pest management33
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agricultural Ecosystem - understand
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem - farmscape
  • C. Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
concepts of pest management34
Concepts of Pest Management
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • Routine - “spray by calendar” versus “treat when necessary” driven by data.
  • Treatments based on NEED.
concepts of pest management35
Concepts of Pest Management
  • A. Agricultural Ecosystem - understand
  • B. Planning the Agroecosystem - farmscape
  • C. Cost/Benefit and Benefit/Risk
  • D. Tolerance of Pest Damage
  • E. Leaving a Pest Residue (residual population)
  • F. Timing of Treatments
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
concepts of pest management36
Concepts of Pest Management
  • G. Public Understanding and Acceptance
  • Educate the public about pest management
  • Extension - Richard Boylan! Fortunate to have him here. Full of great information.
  • Take advantage of what Extension has to offer.
  • Scientific/Social Judgement - how should control be achieved?
  • Education of clientele - most important challenge. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Gypsy Moth, Emerald Ash Borer, Asian Longhorn Beetle, Japanese beetle - area wide control.
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