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EAB Update. Lee Townsend Extension Entomologist. Agenda. Identification and Impact Current status Control options – Homeowner & Commercial applicator Biological control General information and questions. EAB calendar. Pupa April - May. Inactive October - April. Adults out mid-May.

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EAB Update


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    1. EAB Update Lee Townsend Extension Entomologist

    2. Agenda • Identification and Impact • Current status • Control options – Homeowner & Commercial applicator • Biological control • General information and questions

    3. EAB calendar Pupa April - May Inactive October - April Adults out mid-May Feeding June - October Adults mid-May – July

    4. Larvae feed under bark June – October; disrupt transport of water, nutrients, carbohydrates • Healthy trees killed within 2-3 years of first symptoms

    5. Emerald ash borer in KY • EAB info - US http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ • Emerald ash borer - KY http://pest.ca.uky.edu/EXT/EAB/welcome.html

    6. 12 counties > 5 mill ash stems54 counties > 2 mill

    7. 2012 EAB Risk Map Red = infested Brown = high Orange = medium Yellow = low

    8. EAB Survey2012 – 1,700 traps

    9. New 2011 Anderson Bracken Boyle Garrard Hardin Scott Woodford

    10. Anderson, Franklin, Henry, Owen,Shelby, Woodford

    11. Boone, Kenton, Campbell

    12. Greenup - Boyd

    13. Boyle - Garrard

    14. Fayette - Jessamine

    15. Hardin

    16. Jefferson – Oldham

    17. 2012 Adult emergence 1st emergence mid- May 450 to 500 dd base 50 Peak June – July about 750 dd

    18. 70 to 140 dd ahead for 2012

    19. Ohio State Recommendations • Imidacloprid when EAB first found – within 15mi high risk – in quarantine zone – low to moderate risk • Use Tree-äge when EAB pressure increases • Use high rate of Tree-äge at infestation peak • Monitor and treat as needed after peak infestation

    20. Treatment Options • Systemic Soil Injections / Drenches: • Imidacloprid (e.g. Merit, Xytect, Bayer Advanced Tree & Shrub 12 Month Insect Control) • Dinotefuran • Systemic Trunk Injections: • Imidacloprid (IMA-jet, Imicide) • Emamectinbenzoate (TREE-äge) • Systemic Trunk Sprays: • Dinotefuron(Safari) • Bark and canopy sprays: Astro, Onyx

    21. Realistic Expectations • Insecticides can protect ash trees from EAB; success is not guaranteed • Insecticides are not effective in eradicating infestations

    22. Homeowner options • 12 mo Tree & Shrub (imidacloprid) • 12 mo Tree & Shrub (dinetofuran) • Ace Caps (acephate)

    23. Imidacloprid (12 month products)

    24. Dinotefuran (Safari) • Green Light Emerald Ash Borer Killer (2% G) • Tree & Shrub Insect Control with Safari 1/2 to 2/3 cup per inch of tree diameter • Apply early to mid-May $5.70/lb $5.33/lb

    25. Acecap 3/8” Insecticide Implants • 5 per pack $9.50 -

    26. Arborists / Commercial Applicators

    27. Imidacloprid (Group 4) • Drench, soil injection, trunk injection • Merit, Xytect, etc.

    28. Safari 20 SG Insecticide (dinotefuran) (Group 4) • Trunk spray – 12 to 24 oz/gal • Use 1 gal per 40” to 50” trunk dbh • 1 – 4 weeks for uptake • Spray from root flare to 4’ to 5’ above ground • Low pressure - 10 to 20 psi • Do not apply to wet bark or within 12 hrs of rain

    29. Safari 20 SG Insecticide • $390 / 3 lb container • Low rate = $2.48/ in circumference • High rate = $3.10 /in circumference

    30. Tree-äge Emamectin benzoate • Restricted Use – Acute human toxicity • $559/liter • $399 injector • Cordless drill • $3.15/ inch circumference • 3 yrs with high rate

    31. Professional Use Products Soil injection / DrenchApplication Imidacloprid Merit April to May Trunk injection Imidacloprid IMA-jet Arborjet May to June ImicideMauget May to June Pointer Wedgle May to June BidrinInjecticide- B Mauget May to June Emamectin Tree-age Arbojet May benzoate Trunk Spray **Dinotefuran Safari + PentraBark April to May

    32. Professional Use Products Preventive Bark & Foliage Cover Sprays bifenthrin Onyx carbaryl Sevin cyfluthrin Tempo permethrin Astro 2x at 4-week intervals – 1st application at black locust bloom

    33. Trunk Injections • Absorbed more quickly than drench • Large trees > 12” dbh • Where drenches are not practical – near water, etc. • Potentially injure trunk, especially if repeated

    34. Summary • Insecticides can offer protection against EAB • Success not assured – annual treatments may be needed • Factors in successful treatment not understood yet • Inventory ash – set priorities

    35. 1 CEU – Cat 10 Email your license number to me today Lee.Townsend@uky.edu

    36. Importing natural enemies

    37. Spathius agrili • Attacks EAB larvae – detects infested trees, injects egg into EAB larva • Affects up to 90% of EAB larvae in Chinese trees • 3 to 4 generations per year • Winter as pupae under bark

    38. Tertastichus plannipennisi • Attacks EAB larvae – detects infested trees, injects egg into EAB larva • 50% success rate • Up to 127 adults per EAB larva • Winter as larvae under bark

    39. Oobius agrili • Attacks EAB egg • At least 4 generations per year • 60% success rate • Up to 62 eggs/wasp • Winter as larvae in egg

    40. Importing natural enemies Environmental impact • Are they specific to intended host? • Can they be reared successfully for mass release? • Is our climate suitable?

    41. What does the future hold? • Will North American ash will follow the model of Dutch elm disease - individual trees have reduced life span but are able to reproduce • OR American chestnut - individual trees die before they can reproduce • OR something entirely different

    42. Factoids • Ash in sunny, open conditions preferred over shaded locations within canopies • Blue ash appears to be less attractive than green or white but is attacked as other ash species die • Stressed ash trees may be preferred but once EAB is abundant healthy trees are attacked, too • 1.5” diameter to mature trees

    43. EAB Hosts • Only infests ash (Fraxinus) in the US • EAB or “a closely related beetle” in Asian attacks species of elm, walnut, and Pterocarya (wingnut) • Green ash appears to decline more rapidly that white ash under similar conditions

    44. Dispersal • Unassisted rate in Michigan appears to have been about 6 mi/year (0.6 mi/yr cited, too) • On edges – EAB galleries up to 800 yds from potential source • BUT most within 100 – 200 yds • 1.7 mi average by mated female

    45. Eggs • 50 to 90 eggs / female • In bark crevices • Hatch in about 2 weeks • Rough bark

    46. Alternate hosts • Given no alternative, female EAB will lay eggs on alternate species • “Ovipositional mistakes” do occur in the field but appear to be rare • Privet appears to be a suitable host for small EAB larvae

    47. Recommendations change, keep fishing for new information …

    48. Don’t believe everything you read

    49. Don’t wait too late to ask for help