camelot the kennedy administration n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 80

"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 271 Views
  • Uploaded on

"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA. JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY, 1917- 1963. 35 TH PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. JAN. 1961 – NOV. 1963

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about '"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION' - reba


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
camelot the kennedy administration

"CAMELOT": THE KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

slide2

JOHN FITZGERALD KENNEDY, 1917- 1963.

35TH PRESIDENT OF THE U.S. JAN. 1961 – NOV. 1963

THE THOUSAND DAYS – CALLED "CAMELOT" BECAUSE THE LERNER AND LOWE MUSICAL WAS A FAVORITE OF JFK'S – AND IT FIT!

slide3

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

  • TODAY:
  • WHAT WERE JFK'S FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC POLICIES, AND WHY? HOW EFFECTIVE WERE THEY?
  • WHY WAS THE EARLY 1960s A PERIOD OF GREAT OPTIMISM?
  • TODAY AND BROAD
  • HOW DID U.S. IDENTITY CHANGE IN THE EARLY 1960s?
  • HOW DOES TELEVISION AFFECT ELECTIONS?
slide4

ELECTION OF 1960

DEMOCRATS

P

VP

JFK

CATHOLIC

WWII NAVY HERO

HOUSE, 1947 - 53

SENATE , 1953 – 60

LYNDON BAINES JOHNSON

(TEX.) -- "MASTER OF THE SENATE"

NEW DEAL DEMOCRAT

HOUSE, 1937 – 49

WWII NAVY VET (COMBAT?)

SENATE, 1949-60

slide5

REPUBLICANS

NOTE REPUBLICAN TRADITION OF NOMINATING VP OR

MOST "SENIOR" CANDIDATE FROM LAST ELECTION

RICHARD MILHOUSE NIXON,

(CAL.) QUAKER AND RED-BAITER

WWII NAVY VET (NON-COMBAT)

HOUSE, 1947-50

SENATE, 1950 -53

VICE PRESIDENT 1953-61.

HENRY CABOT LODGE, JR. (MASS.)

CAREER DIPLOMAT

AMBASSADOR TO:

UN, S. VIETNAM, W. GERMANY

slide6

HOW COULD A CATHOLIC GET ELECTED PRESIDENT OF THE U.S.?

  • AMERICANS HAD A NEW BOOGIE-MAN: GODLESS COMMUNISTS INSTEAD OF CATHOLICS
  • BUT IT WAS AN ISSUE IN THE ELECTION – WOULD THE POPE TAKE OVER AMERICA
  • EVEN TODAY, MANY AMERICANS BELIEVE THAT CATHOLICS ARE NOT CHRISTIANS!
  • IT WASN'T JUST ANY CATHOLIC – IT WAS JFK!
slide7

THE KENNEDY MYSTIQUE

  • YOUNG (YOUNGEST PRESIDENT EVER ELECTED (43)) HANDSOME WAR HERO WITH BEAUTIFUL WIFE, RICH, SOPHISTICATED – ABOVE, WEDDING PHOTO AND 1960 HARVARD PARADE
slide9

DECORATEDWAR HERO, PACIFIC THEATER

  • 1943: PT-109, THE TORPEDO BOAT JFK COMMANDED WAS SUNK JAPANESE DESTROYER
  • HE LED SURVIVORS TO "DESERT" ISLAND, SWAM TO OTHER ISLANDS LOOKING FOR FOOD AND WATER (RESCUED 6 DAYS LATER)
  • HIS TAKE ON HOW HE BECAME A HERO: "IT WAS INVOLUNTARY. THEY SANK MY BOAT"
slide10

1955: THE PULITZER PRIZE-WINNING BOOK

  • ABOUT SENATORS HE ADMIRED

TED SORENSON, 1928- 2010, WHO PROBABLY WROTE THE BOOK AND JFK'S SPEECHES

the big irish family

John

THE BIG IRISH FAMILY

Rosemary

Joe, Jr.

Rose

Robert

Pat

Joe, Sr.

Eunice

Kathleen

Jean

Teddy

slide12

THE FATHER WHO WAS DETERMINED THAT HIS SON WOULD BE PRESIDENT

JOSEPH P. KENNEDY, AS AMBASSADOR TO THE COURT OF SAINT JAMES (1938-40), HE WAS ALSO FIRST SEC CHAIR. HIS WIFE ROSE WAS DAUGHTER OF BOSTON MAYOR.

slide13

THE TRAGIC FAMILY

THE ELDEST SON, JOSEPH, JR. DIED IN WWII. THE SECOND DAUGHTER, KATHLEEN, DIED IN A PLANE CRASH DURING THE WAR. THE ELDEST DAUGHTER, ROSEMARY, WAS RETARDED AND LOBOTOMIZED.

slide15

HIS PROMISES (?):

  • A "NEW FRONTIER": " W]e stand today on the edge of a New Frontier -— the frontier of the 1960's, the frontier of unknown opportunities and perils, the frontier of unfilled hopes and unfilled threats. ... Beyond that frontier are uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty and surplus."
slide16

TELEVISION!

  • 1960: FIRST TELEVISED PRESIDENTIAL DEBATES
  • MOST PEOPLE WHO LISTENED ON RADIO THOUGHT NIXON WON – MOST WHO SAW IT ON TV THOUGHT KENNEDY WON
slide17

1960 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION

NOT A LANDSLIDE IN POPULAR VOTE (0.1% MARGIN) – AND IN MANY STATES THE VOTES WERE AS CLOSE OR CLOSER

slide18

PRESIDENTIAL MAP, 1969

DEMOCRATS LOST SEATS IN BOTH HOUSES OF CONGRESS – CONTROLLED HOUSE 262-175. IN SENATE, INSUFFICIENT MAJORITY (64-36) FOR CONTROL

slide19

THE INAUGURATION, JANUARY 20, 1961

"ASK NOT WHAT YOUR COUNTRY CAN DO FOR YOU. ASK WHAT YOU CAN DO FOR YOUR COUNTRY."

slide20

NOTABLE KENNEDY CABINET MEMBERS

HIS BROTHER, ROBERT, ATTORNEY GENERAL, DEAN RUSK, SECRETARY OF STATE, ROBERT MCNAMARA, SECRETARY OF DEFENSE

slide21

A NEW STYLE IN THE WHITE HOUSE (AND THE COUNTRY)

THE KENNEDYS WHITE HOUSE – DINNER FOR ANDRÉ MALRAUX

THE EISENHOWERS

slide24

1962: JACKIE KENNEDY'S TV TOUR OF NEWLY REDECORATED WHITE HOUSE – 3 OUT OF 4 VIEWERS WATCHED AND NO POPULIST UPRISING

slide25

1961 – PUBLICATION OF MASTERING THE ART OF FRENCH COOKING BY JULIA CHILD ET. AL. -- IT'S A BEST SELLER -- THERE'S A NEW TYPE OF EDUCATED BOURGEOISIE (BUT STILL LOTS OF REACTIONARIES AND THE GROWING COUNTER-CULTURE

slide26

THE NEW FRONTIER – MOSTLY UNCONQUERED -- SAME REPUBLICAN-SOUTHERN DEMOCRATIC Coalition THAT DEFEATED TRUMAN'S FAIR DEAL KILLED NEW FRONTIER IN CONGRESS (NO VOTES ON MOST!)

  • MAJOR NEW FRONTIER GOALS:
  • CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION -- NO
  • MEDICARE (HEALTH INSURANCE FOR ELDERLY)- NO
  • ANTI-POVERTY PROGRAMS
  • DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND WELFARE -- NO
  • HOUSING ACT OF 1961 – URBAN RENEWAL – YES
  • BUT THERE'S $$ IN THIS FOR BUSINESS
  • IT OFTEN MEANS DESTRUCTION OF POOR NEIGHBORHOODS
slide27

INCREASES IN MINIMUM WAGE AND SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS -- YES

  • PILOT FOOD STAMP PROGRAM - YES
  • MASS TRANSIT -- NO
  • TAX CUTS TO STIMULATE ECONOMY - NO (HOW TIMES CHANGE!
  • NASA – YES – BUT THAT IS REALLY A COLD WAR PROGRAM – SPACE RACE WITH SOVIETS
slide28

1961: PRESIDENT'S COMMISSION ON THE STATUS OF WOMEN ESTABLISHED

  • CHAIRED BY ELEANOR ROOSEVELT
  • 1963: COMMISSION REPORT ISSUED, FINDING employment discrimination, unequal pay, legal inequality, and insufficient support services for working women (EXAMPLE = LACK OF CHILD CARE FOR WORKING WOMEN)

ROOSEVELT AND KENNEDY IN 1961

slide29

1963: EQUAL PAY ACT

No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section [section 206 of title 29 of the United States Code] shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs …"

NOT WORTH THE PAPER IT Was printed on – almost no women did "equal work on jobs" – even today on the average women get paid less than men for the same jobs (men don't take maternity leaves, stay home to take care of sick kids, etc.)

slide31

THE PEACE CORPS – JFK CREATED BY EXECUTIVE ORDER MARCH 1961, CONGRESS RATIFIED SEPTEMBER 1961:

  • "To promote world peace and friendship through a Peace Corps, which shall make available to interested countries and areas men and women of the United States qualified for service abroad and willing to serve, under conditions of hardship if necessary, to help the peoples of such countries and areas in meeting their needs for trained manpower."
  • "WORLD PEACE" = EDUCATION, BUILDING THIRD-WORLD ECONOMIES, TO AVOID SPREAD OF COMMUNISM (funding has been cut since 1980)
  • Director = jfk's brother-in-law sargentshriver
slide32

BUT OVER 10,000 PEOPLE JOINED BY 1966 FOR TWO-YEAR TOURS AS TEACHERS,

  • CHRIS MATTHEWS
  • SENATOR CHRISTOPHER DODD
  • MANY AUTHORS INCLUDING PAUL THEROUX AND KINKY FRIEDMANN
  • IN GENERAL, THERE WAS A WAVE OF VOLUNTEERISM AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE 1960s AND 1970s –REMEMBER THE FREEDOM RIDERS!
  • YOUNG PEOPLE LINING UP TO WORK IN D.C. FOR GOVERNMENT, INTEREST GROUPS
  • PERFECTIONISM REDUX! WE'LL SEE MORE OF THAT IN THE LATER 1960s.
slide33

THE SPACE RACE

  • SOVIET COSMONAUT YURI GAGARIN, FIRST MAN IN SPACE (UP AND DOWN), APRIL 1961
  • MERCURY ASTRONAUT AND MIAMIAN HAM THE CHIMP, FIRST AMERICAN IN SPACE (UP AND DOWN), JANUARY 1961
slide34

MERCURY ASTRONAUT SCOTT CARPENTER, FIRST HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS AMERICAN IN SPACE (UP AND DOWN). MAY, 1962

slide35

MERCURY ASTRONAUT JOHN GLENN, FIRST AMERICAN TO ORBIT THE EARTH, 1962.

  • IN 1963, HE TESTIFIED AGAINST ALLOWING WOMEN ASTRONAUTS
  • REPUBLICAN SENATOR FROM OHIO, 1975-1998.
  • SPACE SHUTTLE ASTRONAUT (WHILE IN SENATE) 1998
slide36

PUBLICITY PHOTO OF THE ORIGINAL MERCURY ASTRONAUTS. THE SPACE PROGRAM WAS HEAVILY PUBLICIZED – PROPAGANDA ABOUT U.S. SUPERIORITY

  • EXAMPLE: ON DAYS OF LAUNCHES, CLASSES WERE CANCELED AT PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND KIDS HAD TO WATCH THE LAUNCHES
slide37

1961: THE ALLIANCE FOR PROGRESS – A MARSHALL PLAN FOR LATIN AMERICA - $10 BILLION OVER 10 YEARS (ORIG. $20 BILL. BUT CUT DUE TO VIETNAM)

slide38

GOALS

  • CONTAIN COMMUNISM IN LATIN AMERICA
  • RAISE GDP 2.5%/ YEAR, BUILD INDUSTRY, ETC. (LIKE MARSHALL PLAN BUT NOT AS MUCH $ AND NOT AS SERIOUS A PRIORITY)
  • MOST OF THE $$ WENT TO DICTATORS WE SUPPORTED – DID NOT TURN LATIN AMERICA INTO WESTERN EUROPE
  • ALSO DID NOT LEAD TO LATIN AMERICAN LOVE OF U.S. ("YANQUI, GO HOME!")
slide39

1961 – THE BERLIN WALL.

  • THANKS TO THE MARSHALL PLAN, THE STANDARD OF LIVING AND AVAILABILTY OF CONSUMER GOODS WAS MUCH HIGHER IN WEST BERLIN THAN IN EAST BERLIN.
  • EAST BERLINERS COULD GO ACROSS BORDER AND SEE THIS, EVEN MOVE TO WEST
  • RESULTING DISCONTENT AND "BRAIN DRAIN" WAS A THREAT TO SOVIET DOMINION IN EAST BERLIN AND EAST GERMANY GENERALLY.
  • 1961: THE EAST GERMAN (SOVIET) GOVERNMENT STARTED BUILDING A FORTIFIED WALL BETWEEN EAST AND WEST BERLIN.
  • OF COURSE THE U.S. REACTED WITH OUTRAGE – THESE WERE WHITE FOLK, NOT KOREANS OR VIETNAMESE!
slide42

U.S. REPONSE: KENNEDY WENT TO BERLIN AND MADE A SPEECH: "Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was CIVIS ROMANUS SUM. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is 'Ich bin ein Berliner!'... All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words 'Ich bin ein Berliner!"

slide43

APRIL, 1961: THE BAY OF PIGS INVASION

  • RECALL THE U.S. PROPRIETARY ATTITUDE TOWARD CUBA, AND THAT WE REFUSED TO SUPPORT THE CUBAN REVOLUTION (LAND REFORM)
  • IN 1960, THE CIA BEGAN RECRUITING AND TRAINING CUBAN EXILES IN MIAMI TO INVADE CUBA
  • CIA GAVE THEM WEAPONS AND EVEN SOME PLANES.
  • CIA PROMISED THEM U.S. MILITARY SUPPORT FOR THE INVASION
slide44

THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT KNEW FROM SPIES THAT THE INVASION WAS COMING.

  • ALSO A FEW DAYS BEFORE AIR ATTACKS ON CUBAN AIR FORCE FIELD WERE MADE BY CUBAN PILOTS IN FIGHTER PLANES PROVIDED BY THE U.S. – THEY TOOK OFF FROM NICARAGUA
  • ON APRIL 17, 1961, 1400V GROUND TROOPS – PRIMARILY THE 1,300 CUBAN EXILES IN BRIGADE # 2506, BEGAN THE INVASION OF CUBA AT PLAYA GIRON
slide46

THOUGH THE TRANSPORT SHIPS THAT BROUGHT THEM TO CUBA WERE “PRIVATE,” THEY WERE ESCORTED BY U.S. NAVY DESTROYERS. ALSO AN AIRCRAFT CARRIER WAS NEARBY. AND THE CUBAN EXILES EXPECTED U.S. AIR FORCE AIR SUPPORT FOR THEIR INVASION

  • WE DO NOT KNOW TO THIS DAY WHETHER PRESIDENT KENNEDY (ELECTED 1960) KNEW IN ADVANCE ABOUT THE INVASION, BUT WE KNOW HE CALLED OFF THE AIR SUPPORT AND NAVAL SUPPORT.
  • ** WHY – IF U.S. HAD PARTICIPATED IN INVASION OF CUBA, AN ALLY OF THE SOVIET UNION, WE MIGHT HAVE WOUND UP IN NUCLEAR WAR WITH THE SOVIET UNION
slide47

BRIGADE 2506 AND OTHER EXILE FORCES COULD NOT WIN WITHOUT U.S. AIR SUPPORT, OF COURSE – FEWER THAN 1500 MEN AGAINST THE ENTIRE CUBAN MILITARY AND CUBA’S ARMED POPULACE.

  • APPARENTLY THE MEN EXPECTED CUBAN POPULACE WOULD RISE UP AGAINST CASTRO WHEN INVASION OCCURRED
  • THERE WERE A FEW B-26 ATTACKS ON CUBA, PILOTED MOSTLY BY THE CIA AND SOME BY AIR NATIONAL GUARDSMEN, AND ONE WAS SHOT DOWN, KILLING FOUR AMERICANS
  • BUT THERE WAS NO DIRECT AIR COVER FOR THE GROUND TROOPS.
slide49

118 CUBAN EXILE FORCES AND FOUR AMERICANS WERE KILLED IN THE INVASION. 1,204 CUBAN EXILES AND TWO AMERICANS WERE CAPTURED.

  • FIVE OF THE CUBANS and BOTH AMERICANS WERE EXECUTED. OTHERS DIED IN CAPTIVITY.
  • iN 1962 THE U.S. TRADED FOOD AND SUPPLIED TO CUBA FOR THE SURVIVORS. THEY WERE BROUGHT TO MIAMI AND GIVEN A WELCOME-BACK RALLY AT THE ORANGE BOWL. PRESIDENT KENNEDY ATTENDED.
  • 6. THIS INCIDENT MADE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE U.S. AND THE SOVIET VERY TENSE IN 1961, AND LED DIRECTLY TO THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS.
slide50

PRESIDENT KENNEDY TO BRIGADE 2506 SURVIVORS AT THE ORANGE BOWL: “SO SORRY, GUYS. HERE, TO MAKE IT ALL UP TO YOU, HAVE YOUR BRIGADE FLAG BACK!” (AND CUBAN-AMERICANS VOTED ACCORDINGLY UNTIL 1992)

slide51

FEBRUARY 1962: U.S. EMBARGO ON CUBA (IN RETALIATION FOR NATIONALIZATION OF PROPERTY OF U.S. CITIZENS)

  • STILL IN EFFECT – AND THE CASTROS ARE STILL IN POWER IN CUBA
slide52

1962 – THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS – PROBABLY THE CLOSEST THE U.S. AND SOVIET UNION EVER CAME TO WAR WITH EACH OTHER

    • AS A RESULT OF THE 1961 BAY OF PIGS INVASION, IN SEPTEMBER 1962 THE SOVIET UNION DECIDED TO PUT NUCLEAR MISSILES IN CUBA TO DETER ANOTHER U.S. INVASION
    • U.S. SPY PLANES PHOTOGRAPHED THE MISSILE BASES UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN THE FALL OF 1962.
    • N.B. PROBABLY NO BIG DEAL MILITARILY – SOVIET UNION HAD ICBMS AND COULD NUKE THE U.S. FROM RUSSIA JUST AS WELL AS IT COULD FROM CUBA.
slide54

BUT THE POLITICALLY, IF THE EXISTENCE OF THE NUKES IN CUBA BECAME PUBLIC INFO, THE U.S. COULD NOT ALLOW THE SOVIET UNION TO HAVE A NUCLEAR BASE IN CUBA -- OTHER NATIONS WOULD THINK THE U.S. WAS WEAK. BUT THE SOVIET UNION DENIED THAT THERE WERE NUKES IN CUBA

  • THE U.S. DEMANDED THAT THE MISSILES BE REMOVED FROM CUBA AND PLACED A NAVAL BLOCKADE ON CUBA TO PREVENT ANY SOVIET SHIPS FROM DELIVERING ANY MORE NUKES TO CUBA.
  • OCTOBER 22, 1962: JFK WENT ON TV AND ANNOUNCED MISSILES WERE IN CUBA AND:
  • "
slide55

"It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union."

  • ALL U.S. FORCES WENT ON DEFCON (DEFENSE READINESS CONDITION) 3 (HIGHEST = 1 = WAR)
  • KRUSCHEV SENT 2:
  • 1) U.S. = PIRATE ACTION, WILL LEAD TO WAR
  • 2) "COOLY WEIGH YOUR OPTIONS . . . "
  • DEFCON 2
slide56

AND ALL LITTLE KIDS AND MANY ADULTS THOUGHT:

SO DID MANY OF OUR ALLIES, INCLUDING BRITAIN – WORLD OPINION MOSTLY AGAINST U.S.

slide57

PEOPLE WERE MAKING SURE THEIR FALLOUT SHELTERS HAD FOOD AND WATER AND BATTERIES FOR THE RADIO

(SCARY, SCARY TO KIDS)

slide59

THE DEBATE AT EXCOMM (EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL)

  • MCNAMARA: DO NOTHING. MISSILES NOT A GREATER THREAT
  • JOINT CHIEFS: INVADE CUBA AND GO TO WAR WITH SOVIET UNION – BOUND TO HAPPEN GET IT OVER WITH!
  • DEAN RUSK: WOULDN'T TAKE POSITION
  • ADLAI STEVENSON, U.N. SECRETARY: NEGOTIATE
  • ROBERT KENNEDY ("RFK"): QUARANTINE/ BLOCKADE, TRY TO WIN WORLD SUPPORT
  • U.S. CALLED EMERGENCY MEETING OF U.N. SECURITY COUNCIL
slide61

OCTOBER 25, 1962: AFTER SOVIET AMBASSADOR ZORIN DENIED MISSILES WERE IN CUBA, ADLAI STEVENSON SHOWED THE SURVEILLANCE PHOTOS OF THE MISSILES

slide62

WORLD OPINION STARTED LEANING AGAINST SOVIETS

  • GAVE RFK OPENING FOR NEGOTIATIONS – BEGAN WITH LUNCH MEETING BETWEEN AN ABC REPORTER AND A SOVIET SPY IN MANHATTAN
  • KRUSCHEV SENT TWO TELEGRAMS:
  • ONE WITH OFFER TO WITHDRAW SOVIET MISSILES FROM CUBA IF U.S. WOULD AGREE NOT TO INVADE CUBA AND WITHDRAW ITS MISSILES FROM ITALY AND TURKEY
  • ONE BASICALLY WITHDRAWING THE OFFER
  • AFTER MUCH DEBATE AND INTRIGUE, RFK TOLD SOVIET AMBASSADOR WE ACCEPTED THE FIRST OFFER
slide63

AND THAT WAS THE DEAL

  • BUT THE AGREEMENT ALLOWED THE U.S. TO WAIT SIX MONTHS TO TAKE ITS MISSILES OUT OF CUBA SO IT WOULDN’T LOOK LIKE A QUID PRO QUO TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE!
  • LED TO 1963 "HOTLINE"
  • AGREEMENT – DIRECT PHONE
  • LINK BETWEEN POTUS
  • AND SOVIET PREMIER
  • RIGHT – ORIGINAL HOTLINE
  • (MY FRIENDS AND I MADE
  • IT A POINT TO HAVE RED PHONES
  • IN COLLEGE)
slide64

AFTER THE COLD WAR ENDED WE FOUND OUT THE MISSILES WERE NEVER ARMED WITH WARHEADS – THEY WERE JUST THERE FOR CUBAN AND SOVIET SPY PLANES TO SEE

TO MAKE US FEEL SAFER AND SCARE CUBA – NIKE MISSILES ALL OVER EVERGLADES IN 60s AND 70s

slide65

NOVEMBER, 1961 -- ? : OPERATION MONGOOSE – JFK AUTHORIZED COVERT CIA PROGRAM AGAINST CUBA –

  • GOAL =
  • TOPPLE CASTRO
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE (LIKE RADIO MARTI AND PROPAGANDA
  • SABOTAGE
  • AT LEAST 8 ASSASSINATION PLOTS AGAINST CASTRO (INCLUDING THE EXPLODING CIGAR PLOT)

MAJOR-GENERAL EDWARD LANDSDALE, THE GENIUS BEHIND OPERATION MONGOOSE

slide66

VIETNAM

  • BY END OF 1963, NUMBER OF U.S. "MILITARY ADVISORS" HAD INCREASED TO ≈ 16,000
  • NOT PERCEIVED AS WAR YET BY PUBLIC
  • BUT U.S. INVOLVEMENT INCREASED - $$$ TO SOUTH VIETNAM
  • MOST IN "SOUTH VIETNAM" (THE NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT/ VIET CONG) SUPPORTED HO CHI MINH AND REUNIFICATION
  • KENNEDY ADMINISTRATION FELT THE CORRUPTION AND REPRESSION OF SOUTH VIETNAMESE PRIME MINISTER NGO DINH DIEM WAS THE PROBLEM
slide67

DIEM WITH EISENHOWER. THE U.S., THANKS TO GENERAL LANDSDALE, PUT DIEM IN POWER IN 1954

HE WAS CATHOLIC AND PERSECUTED BUDDHISTS

JFK AND RFK AUTHORIZED CIA TO ENGINEER COUP AGAINST DIEM – HE WOUND UP ASSASSINATED NOVEMBER 1, 1963 – RUMORS THAT KENNEDYS AUTHORIZED IT PERSIST (PROBABLY NOT) BUT CIA DID!

LED TO “MILITARY DIRECTORATE” HEADED BY NGUYEN VAN THIEU, COUPS, U.S. NEEDING MORE TROOPS TO MAINTAIN S. VIETNAMESE GOV’T (AND S. VIETNAM!)

slide68

BUT DESPITE ALL THE COLD WAR SCARINESS, JFK WAS VERY POPULAR

  • HIS APPROVAL RATING WAS OVER 70% THROUGHOUT HIS PRESIDENCY
  • GNP GREW, UNEMPLOYMENT LOW
  • HE GOT CREDIT FOR SAVING US FROM NUCLEAR ATTACK FROM CUBA (IN FACT HE MADE IT MORE LIKELY!)
  • HE AND HIS WIFE WERE WIDELY ADMIRED AND EMULATED - HIS HAIRCUT, HER HAIRDO AND CLOTHES
slide69

SHE WORE PILLBOX HATS  MOST OTHER WOMEN WORE PILLBOX HATS

YOU'VE SEEN DOZENS OF POLITICIANS WITH JFK HAIRCUTS

slide70

BUT NOT UNIVERSALLY POPULAR, OF COURSE

THERE WERE MANY RIGHT-WING ORGANIZATIONS, VESTIGES OF THE MC CARTHY ERA, SUCH AS THE JOHN BIRCH SOCIETY

THIS POSTER CAME OUT NOVEMBER 1, 1963

slide74

LEE HARVEY OSWALD, OFFICIALLY THE LONE ASSASSIN

  • OSWALD HAD BEEN IN THE U.S. MARINES, THEN DEFECTED TO SOVIET UNION IN 1959, THEN WAS ALLOWED TO RETURN TO U.S. IN 1961 AND THE STATE DEPARTMENT PAID HIS FARE!

POSING WITH HIS MAIL-ORDER MANNLICHER-CARCANNO RIFLE (SUPPOSEDLY USED IN ASSASSINATION) AND TROTSKYIST PAPER THE MILITANT

slide75

WHOOPS! OSWALD WAS MURDERED WHILE IN POLICE CUSTODY ON NOVEMBER 24, BY JACK RUBY, A NIGHT CLUB OWNER WITH MOB TIES

slide76

IN 1964, THE WARREN COMMISSION (HEADED BY SUPREME COURT JUSTICE EARL WARREN) CONCLUDED OSWALD WAS THE LONE ASSASSIN

  • SEALED ITS RECORDS FOR 75 YEARS (UNTIL 2039) – WHEN VIRTUALLY EVERYONE OVER THE AGE OF ABOUT 15 IN 1963 WOULD BE DEAD
  • IN 1976, A SENATE COMMITTEE CONCLUDED THERE WAS PROBABLY AN ASSASSINATION CONSPIRACY, BUT OSWALD WAS THE LONE ASSASSIN
  • WE HAVE NO IDEA WHAT REALLY HAPPENED!