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Secure and Insecure Attachments. Research Results and Correlations PPT Lecture on Research Results Video Immersion Good will hunting A WORD ABOUT GRAVE YARD TOUR. FINDING YOUR ATTACHMENT TYPE: INSECURE / SECURE. If you score 11 or less attachment style = insecure

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secure and insecure attachments
Secure and InsecureAttachments
  • Research Results and Correlations
  • PPT Lecture on Research Results
  • Video Immersion Good will hunting
  • A WORD ABOUT GRAVE YARD TOUR
finding your attachment type insecure secure
FINDING YOUR ATTACHMENT TYPE: INSECURE / SECURE
  • If you score 11 or less attachment style = insecure
  • More than 21 attachment style = insecure
  • Average score from bereaved study participants was 17
  • Other subcategories scoring to follow
scoring your anxious ambivalent score
SCORING YOUR ANXIOUS / AMBIVALENT SCORE
  • SUM THESE CATEGORIES
  • PARENTAL UNUSAL CLOSENESS SI - 6, 4
  • PARENTAL OVERPROTECTIVENESS SI -17, 18, 19, 20
  • CHILDHOOD TIMIDITY SII - 7, 10, 12, 15, 16, 24, 25
  • DRESDEN VASE SII - 8, 14, 17,18, 19
  • 10 MORE = INDICATES ANXIOUS AMBIVALENT ATTACHMENT
  • SCORE = 7 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
slide4
SCORING AVOIDANT ATTACHMENTS
  • SUM THESE CATEGORIES
  • PARENTS INTOLERANT OF CLOSENESS SI - 28
  • CHILD INTOLERANT OF CLOSENESS SII - 26
  • CHILDHOOD AGGRESSIVENESS / DISTRUSTSII 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31
  • SCORE OF 6 OR MORE INDICATES AVOIDANT ATTACHMENT
  • SCORE 3.8 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
slide5
SCORING DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENTS
  • SUM THESE CATEGORIES
  • FAMILY EXPERIENCE DANGER / PERSECUTION SII - 4
  • PARENTAL REJECTION / VIOLENCE SI - 10, 13, 25, 26, 27
  • PARENTAL DEPRESSION / PSYCH SI - 7, 8, 9a, 9b, 12
  • CHILDHOOD UNHAPPINESS SII - 9, 32, 33
  • COMPULSIVE CAREGIVING SII - 11, 23
  • SCORE OF 6 OR MORE INDICATES DISORGANIZED ATTACHMENT
  • SCORE 4.5 WAS AVERAGE SCORE FOR BEREAVED PARTICIPANTS
secure attachments
SECURE ATTACHMENTS
  • The more reported security of attachment the less severe distress reported AFTER BEREAVEMENT
  • Why?
correlations
Correlations

Low Secure Attachment

= secure parenting

harmonious adult relationships

Low Marital

Disharmony Score

Low Problematic Coping Score

Low Overall Distress Score

securely attached will still seek and sometimes need treatment
Securely Attached will still seek and Sometimes need treatment
  • Securely attached are not free from distress, but more likely to cope better and have lower levels of distress
  • Those that sought help and who had low insecure scores suffered from
    • Obsessional symptoms, sleep disorders, symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety
    • Causes of the latter symptoms: unexpected, untimely, or violent bereavements
    • Ultimately, it appeared secure attachments sometimes leave us unprepared for traumatic events that occur over a lifetime.
summary secure attachments less distress after bereavement
Summary secure Attachments = Less distress after bereavement
  • Secure attached are:
      • More self-confident
      • Seek out support and help when needed
      • Have a reasonable sense of autonomy
      • Marriage is more harmonious and provide a buffer from distress
group task and questions
Group Task and Questions
  • Form Group’s of 5 / 6
  • Select Captain / Spokesperson
  • Task
    • Group is watch movie and provide evidence of attachment / grief details related to movie and characters.
    • Be as analytical as possible
    • Video will be watched over 2 classes / group who wins these immersions (gaining most pts) will be given a prize in last class.
anxious ambivalent
Shows great distress during separation
  • Clings and cries angrily upon return
  • Distress continues after reunion for much longer than securely attached infants
Anxious / Ambivalent
  • Remember these are the folks who scored high on Parental Unusual closeness and/or Overprotection along with Childhood timidity and/or high ‘Dresden Vase scores.
  • Results showed that participants who scored high on Anxious/ Ambivalence bereaved for protracted periods of time and had difficulty with loneliness.
  • However, anxious/ambivalent attachment in childhood and long lasting severe grief after bereavement could not be explained by the anxious/ambivalent dependence on the lost person.
        • So what explains the persistence of grief for these folks?
persistence of grief
Persistence of Grief?
  • Long lasting grief appeared to be entangled with anger and resentment - freezing the ability to let go the deceased.
  • What else do folks think is going on here?
correlations1
Correlations

Anxious/Ambivalent

= insecure parenting

conflicted adult relationships

Marital Disagreements

Disagreements with deceased

Chronic Grief

Cling

attach to / push away

anxious ambivalence in light of bereavement summary
Anxious / Ambivalence: In light of bereavement Summary
  • People who experience anxious / ambivalent relationships in childhood and people who make dependent attachments in adult life are both likely to suffer severe and lasting grief and loneliness after bereavement.
    • It appears that these persons do not see love as something that is given, but is demanded - a la from parents.
    • In adulthood then so-called love is lost (via death) and their fear and rage complicates and magnifies grief
    • They are caught in a web of needing to cling and holding back from clinging = high anxiety. So when their loved one dies - who do they cling to or go for support?
avoidant attachments
Avoidant Attachments
  • Parents intolerant of closeness / do not mirror
  • IFT inhibit their tendency to cling and cry
  • During the SST when (PCF) re-appears (IFT) appears indifferent and uncaring will even ignore / avoid (PCF).
  • Avoidant attachments in childhood were highly correlated in adult life with difficulty in showing affection and with high scores on emotional Inhibition/Distrust and Aggression /Assertiveness
  • Avoidant attachments was also highly correlated with Marital Disagreements.
  • Avoidant attachments were also found to correlate with Disagreements with the now deceased and that the bereaved person never cries - and the prediction of delayed grief...
  • Interestingly, the avoidant attached person did say that they would like to cry more.

Inability to express grief

the avoidant griever
The Avoidant Griever
  • Five out of 10 participants who said they never cry received diagnosis as having a psychosomatic disorder.
  • However, psychosomatic diagnosis was not a key ingredient to the avoidant griever.
  • Inability to grieve and delayed grief, although related to avoidant attachments, appeared to also be correlated with need to control...
avoidance and need to control
Avoidance and Need to Control
  • The bereaved delayed grief because:
        • They were holding grief in check because need to look after a parent / child
        • Lifelong neurosis
        • Past bouts with depression
        • Post-traumatic stress reactions
        • Alcoholism
        • Personality disorders
the avoidant griever1
The Avoidant Griever
  • Ultimately, the findings confirm that children of parents who discouraged the expression of attachment (hugging/cuddling, sharing feelings) will find it difficult to acknowledge and express both grief and affection.
  • This was found to persist in adult life, to increase the risk of interpersonal conflicts and to inhibit the expression of grief.
slide19
Mapping the Avoider
  • Continuous lines indicate significant correlations
  • Interrupted lines indicate non-significant trends
why do patterns of childhood remain into adulthood
Why Do Patterns of Childhood Remain into Adulthood
  • A clinical insight:
    • We return to old conditioning under stress and in times of survival...
    • Avoidant attachments only make children independent of their parents, they have not survived because of keeping away, but because they have found a safe proximity and they are rewarded for it (are continued to be fed and protected).
    • Thus, they will find people who perpetuate assumptive world, but upon death this separateness is “forever” - thus what do I do and who do I turn to.
disorganized attachments
The PCF lacks in confidence with respect to their ability to care for and control their child and they may see their child as more powerful than themselves.

(IFT’s) may cry during separation but avoid the PCF upon return or they may approach the PCF upon return then freeze/fall, hit themselves, rock back and forth, etc.

Disorganized Attachments
  • These are participants who scored high on Parental Depression / Psychiatric Problems; Parental Violence; Childhood Unhappiness; Compulsive Caregiving; Family Persecution.
  • During childhood these folk often felt helpless / hopelessness and may have become caregivers for their parents / siblings.
disorganized findings and patterns of behaviour
Disorganized Findings and Patterns of Behaviour
  • Findings revealed that disorganized type after bereavement suffering from depression, anxiety, and panic and use alcohol to self medicate.
  • There is also a tendency for these folk to feel extreme guilt and report suicidal behaviour
  • Interestingly, findings did indicate the disorganized type would seek help from a professional, but not turn to family members for support.
  • Findings also revealed that the disorganized type indeed has characteristics of the avoidant and anxious/ambivalent type.
disorganized findings and patterns of behaviour1
Disorganized Findings and Patterns of Behaviour
  • Clinical Insight
    • Findings also reveal that the disorganized type display a serious need to protect oneself and distrust others. But, interestingly enough, the disorganized type can trust enough in so much as their trust leads to a confirmation of their assumptive world - (refer to Mollie’s Story pg. 111)
slide24
Mapping the Disorganized
  • Continuous lines indicate significant correlations
  • Interrupted lines indicate non-significant trends
  • Influence of disorganized attachments on psychological problems is not limited to the years of childhood.
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