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air. glass. air. light slows down (v<c). Refraction - the bending of a light ray as it passes from one medium to another. Web Links: Photon in medium & vacuum , Marching band , Refraction . Notes:. varies for different media.

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slide2

air

glass

air

light slows down (v<c)

Refraction- the bending of a light ray as it passes from one medium to another

Web Links: Photon in medium & vacuum, Marching band, Refraction

slide3

Notes:

varies for different media

varies for different media

stays the same

c = speed of light in a vacuum

v = speed of light in a particular medium

  • For any medium, n > 1
  • v = f

Web Link: Refractive index

slide4

Ex:

If the speed of light in glass is 1.97 x 108 m/s, calculate the index of refraction for glass.

slide5

Don’t forget to measure angles from The Normal

n1 = initial medium

n2 = final medium

1 = incident angle

2 = refracted angle

slide6

n1 sin 1 = n2 sin 2

Snell’s Law

Notice: If n2>n1 : lightray bends toward the normal

If n2<n1 :lightray bends away from the normal

slide7

Ex:

air

60

water

Find both the angle of reflection and the angle of refraction for this light ray incident upon water.

slide8

Critical Angle

Diamonds

Fiber Optics

Total Internal Reflection

Web Link: Total internal reflection

Examples:

slide9

Ex:

Find the critical angle for light traveling from water toward air.

slide10

This makes spearfishing very difficult!

Apparent Depth

When viewed from another medium, objects appear to have a different depth than they actually do.

slide11

When viewed from directly above:

n1 = medium containing object

n2 = medium containing observer

d= apparent depth

d = actual depth

slide13

Ex:

11 cm

How far above the water does the cat look to the fish?

slide14

Red: longest  lowest n

Violet: shortest  highest n

bends the most

Dispersion

Index of refraction (n) depends slightly on wavelength ()

Web Link: Prism

slide16

Sometimes a double rainbow can be seen. This is caused by a second internal reflection.