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Ordering the International: Actors, Processes, Structures. Basic Concepts and Analytical Levels of International Relations. Introduction. Perspectives of International Relations. Actor. Structure. Process. Introduction. Actor. Actor. Environment. Who acts ?

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ordering the international actors processes structures

Ordering the International:Actors, Processes, Structures

Basic Concepts and Analytical Levels of

International Relations

slide2

Introduction

Perspectives of International Relations

Actor

Structure

Process

slide3

Introduction

Actor

Actor

Environment

  • Who acts ?
  • Forms, occasions, reasons, causes, results of the behaviour of actors which crosses national borders or is directed towards the international system ?
slide4

Introduction

Process

A

C

B

a)Interaction of Actors

(Duration, Regularity,

Action-Reaction-Pattern ?

b)Forms, occasions, reasons,

causes, results ?

slide5

Introduction

Structure

a)Like processes between actors repeated over time and thus solidified

b) Forms, reasons, consequences ?

slide6

Foreign Policy

  • Ressources
  • Means
  • Aims
  • Interests
  • Decision making processes

International environment

Border crossing action

National Actor

slide7

International Politics

Action

Reaction

Action

Reaction

Action

Reaction

Actor A

Actor C

Actor B

slide8

Actor A

Actor B

Pulling forces

Pushing forces

Actor C

The Billard-Ball-Model of International Politics

slide9

IGO

Foreign Policy A

Akteur B

Akteur A

Foreign Policy B

Society A

Society B

International Politics

Internationale Politik

the modern territorial state substrate of the billard ball model of international politics

cancels

manifestations

Premiss: warfare rests in the horizontal

Air warfare: ballistic carriers and nuclear weapons of mass destruction

cancels

The modern territorial State – Substrate of the Billard-Ball-Model of International Politics

Premiss: Legitimation of the state by successful completion of its functions: guarantee of law and order domestically and protection against (military)attacks in its external relations

Factors of Change: Development of the forces of production and destruction

Medieval starting point

Gun powder revolution of the late middle ages: development of artillery and distance weapons

Wall-protected impenetrability

Territorial State: hard shell of fortresses round periphery & parallell abolition of independence of interior fortified places by the central power

Fortress protected impenetrability

Strategy military power

Politics:

Independence

Law Sovereignty

Modern State: domestically pacified and externally hard shelled defensible Unit with monopoly of the use of physical force on its territory

Impenetrability based on military, political, legal developments

slide11

underlines

Air Warfare, in particular ballistic weapons of mass destruction

overcomes

Military and political impenetrability protected by force

Modern industrial dynamics

Penetrability

functional Interdependence

Transnational networking

Globalization

slide13

Transnational Society

Government

Government

Government

A

B

C

Society

Society

Society

National Actor

Transnational Society (of Actors)

slide14

Government

Government

Government

B

C

A

Society

Society

Society

Transnational Politics

slide15

LOOKING AT THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM FROM A RECENT INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS PERSPECTIVE

  • For some time already, the analysis of International Relations is characterised by a change in perspective
  • away from the state as a unitary actor acting as a gatekeeper between the domestic and international policy areas
  • up, down, and sideways to supra-state, sub-state, and non-state actors.

From the society of states, our focus of attention has consequently shifted to transnational and transgovernmental societies which take the form of boundary-crossing networks amongst individuals and non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

slide16

The traditional concept of international politics: States as international gatekeepers

= government

= society

State C

Society C

State A

State B

Society B

Society A

= foreign or international societal interactions

= foreign or international political interactions

IGO

INGO

slide17

Supranational and intergovernmental actors

International & national regimes

GOVERNMENT A

GOVERNMENT B

GOVERNMENT C

Transnational groups

MULTILEVEL GOVERNANCE: MAIN ACTORS AND LEVELS OF ANALYSIS

TARGET STATE

International level

Administration Legislative branch Judiciary system Central state

Domestic groups&issue-specific groups (commercial, religious, and environmental)

State level

Administration Legislative branch Judiciary system Regional/substate unit

Regional level

Individual cognition; Belief system; Personal and national identity

Individual level

slide18

MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE

Flexibly organised common problem solving among different communities from the local via the regional and state to the international level

(and vice versa)

IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Concept covers the mechanisms, agreements, and patterns necessary to insure, in an anarchical international system

* transnational cooperation

* balances (of power/influence)

* stability

without formalised and insti-

tutionalised organisations and

treaty systems

governance without government

IN DOMESTIC POLITICS

Concept gains importance in contexts in which political institutions and their decision-makers lose part of their auto-nomy to act; political direction and problem solving has to rely on cooperation of political AND societal actors in networks and negotiation systems (Round Tables etc.)

Multilevel Governance