Group 4 Project. WHAT ARE THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF THE HOUSEHOLDS IN THE VILLAGES OF JAMNAGAR AND WHICH ARE THE MOST EFFICIENT METHODS?. Introduction.
In 1997, Reliance Industries opened the Jamnagar Oil Refinery – The Largest Grassroots refinery in the world. Once an arid region, Jamnagar is all set to become oil hub of the world.
Hypothesis: The food which exhibits the greatest change in temperature provides the greatest amount of heat energy, and hence allows the most work to be done. Thus we think that the energy from the food consumed by the labourers will be significantly higher will be significantly higher than consumed by the landowners.
Q1] what type of food do you eat?
Q2] Can we have samples?
Q3] How often in a day do you eat?
Q4] What kind of work do you do?
Q5] How many hours a day do you work for?
Q6] Do you get your food from the market or is it grown in your farm?
Mass of Bajra- 2.65 grams
Mass of water 7.12 grams
Final Mass of Bajra – 2.33 grams
Therefore, MC Δt = 7.12 12.5 4.2 J = 373.8
373.8/4.2 = 89 calories
Initial Mass – 3.8 grams
Mass of water – 3.2 grams
Final Mass of Potato – 2.69 grams
Therefore, MCΔT =2.69 x 4.2 x 11.9 = 134.446/4.2
= 31.90 cal
Initial mass – 11.19
Mass of water – 5.06
Final mass of eggplant – 7.65
Therefore, mCΔT = 5.06 x 4.2 x 5.7 = 121/4.2 = 28.8
= 28.8 cal
According to our above results, the following is the ranking order for calories from maximum to least – 1) Bajra 2) Potato 3) Egg plant.
This shows us that people eating Bajra obtain more energy. This energy content is directly related to the amount of hydrocarbons present in these various food products because it is these chemicals which get burned to release the heat energy raising the temperature of the water. This means that Bajra is the most energy efficient food.
However, these values when compared to the literature values were very different from the ones that we obtained. For the potato and the Bajra and potato, the lab values are less than the literature values , this is because in the lab while the experiment was being conducted, a calorimeter was not available to us and furthermore there was no insulating material that could be used to prevent heat loss. Thus because of the very large heat loss taking place to the surroundings, we have observed theses results. On the other hand, the value for the egg plant is a little higher than the literature values observed and this may have been due to the heat energy from the Bunsen burner reaching the water and heating it as well, in addition to the heat energy of burning the egg plant.
Hypothesis: From the free availability of cow dung and the prior knowledge that cow dung was less polluting than the other fuels used in the village, we felt that cow dung would be the best fuel for the villagers to use. Besides being environmentally friendly, cow dung has a high calorific value, i.e., it releases large amounts of energy when burnt.
Q1] What fuels are used in this household?
Q2] What fuels are available in the market?
Q3] What is the cost of the fuel used and the other possible fuels that can be used?
Q4] What activities are the fuels used for?
Q5] Which fuel according to you is the best?
Place the spirit lamp without its lid in the centre of the top pan balance and note down its mass. Fill the spirit lamp with kerosene and note down the mass of the spirit lamp now, thereby deducing the mass of kerosene used in the experiment. Place an empty glass beaker on the top pan balance and note down its mass. Fill the glass beaker with 100 ml of water, which will be measured using a measuring cylinder Note down the mass of the beaker now, thereby deducing the mass of 100 ml of water used in experiment
Place the beaker on the wire gauze on a tripod stand. Under the stand, upturn another beaker and place the spirit lamp on it.
Place the bulb of a digital thermometer in the water and note down the initial temperature of water. Light the spirit lamp now, and subsequently record the temperature of water every 30 seconds for a time period of 4 minutes. The temperature at the end of 4 minutes will be termed as the ‘final temperature’. After 4 minutes, note down the mass of the spirit lamp, thereby deducing the mass of kerosene used in the experiment. The same above method was conducted using cow dung and wood.
Mass of beaker: 99.66g
Mass of beaker + water: 198.86g
Mass of kerosene used: 2.55g
Therefore Energy Output = 2.712 kJ/g
Mass of beaker: 99.57g
Mass of beaker + water: 198.65g
Mass of wood used: 5.28g
Therefore Energy Output = 0.413 kJ/g
Mass of beaker: 100.39g
Mass of beaker + water: 198.83g
Mass of gobar used: 3.01 g
Therefore Energy Output = 2.060 kJ/g
The energy released by kerosene was found to be 2.7 12 kJ/g, the energy released by wood was found to be 0.413 kJ/g and the energy released by gobar (cow dung) was 2.060 kJ/g. From this, we can see that the values for kerosene and gobar were significantly higher than that of wood. Therefore, come to the conclusion that kerosene releases the most energy per gram, followed by gobar and then wood. These results were obtained because kerosene is highly inflammable and is a hydrocarbon that is easily combustible, whereas wood and cow dung are not as inflammable and hence do not release as much heat. However, kerosene when burnt burns very strongly and releases a huge amount of smoke as well as soot, which is harmful to both, the environment and the human body. Moreover, taking the economic costs into consideration, we see that Kerosene costs Rs.11 per litre, whereas cow dung and wood are freely available, since a large percentage of the population owns cows due to involvement in agricultural activities. Since gobar gives off quite a large amount of energy, is freely available, and does not pollute the environment as significantly as kerosene, we come to the conclusion that gobar is the best fuel from those given.
Hypothesis: Out of the different materials most commonly used by the villagers in Jamnagar to build their houses that is clay, bricks, and bricks coated with cow dung, bricks coated with cow dung followed by clay and bricks will be the best in order to maintain a cooler environment within the house. This is because the cow dung bricks will have a higher specific heat capacity and hence for a given amount of heat, it would raise the temperature of the house by only a minimal amount.
Q1] What materials do you use to build your houses?
Q2] Can we have samples?
Q3] What materials are available in the market that you can use?
Q4] Is cow dung used in plastering the walls?
Q5] How much did it cost you to build the house?
We see that after the materials are subjected to the same amount of heat, they show different rises in temperature, with the rise in temperature for the bricks with cow dung being the least, followed by clay and then bricks. This means that the specific heat capacity of bricks with cow dung is very high and hence for a lot of heat energy supplied it shows only a small rise in temperature. This makes it one of the best materials to be use for house building as on a hot day, it will absorb the heat energy without allowing a large increase in temperature, and in doing so keeps the house cooler. Clay which is the second best heat absorber, would be a good choice for the building of roofs, as when placed in a slanting manner, it traps moisture which absorbs heat, further helping in keeping the house cool. Thus, our readings show that bricks plastered with cow dung should be used for the walls of the houses and the roofs should be made by the clay tiles
We have seen experimentally as well as through practical readings that the temperature in the house built with bricks and cow dung is cooler and the difference between the surroundings and the house was 5.3 °C. Assuming that in the lack of these cooling conditions materials, energy will have to be spent to keep the house cool. Assuming that this cooling is provided by 1 fan, used for around 16 hours a day, we can calculate approximately how much energy is spent on these. With the information that there are around 700 farmers in the village, the total utilization would be 11,200 hours.
Using the information that a normal ceiling fan working at the highest speed uses 85 watts, we can see that an approximate of 950 kWh of energy can be saved per day.
Sagar Rupani Abhijeet Kaji Manasi Shah Isha Ambani Nishita Nigam Ishani Shukla Shriyansh Maheshwari Shireen Qureishi Aditya Mehta Prajay Patel