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In 1997, Reliance Industries opened the Jamnagar Oil Refinery – The Largest Grassroots refinery in the world. Once an arid region, Jamnagar is all set to become oil hub of the world.

Aim: To examine the foods being consumed by the villagers in terms of the amount of energy they gained from it and compare this to the kind and hours of work they put in every day, thus deciding whether the food they were eating provided them with enough energy.

Hypothesis: The food which exhibits the greatest change in temperature provides the greatest amount of heat energy, and hence allows the most work to be done. Thus we think that the energy from the food consumed by the labourers will be significantly higher will be significantly higher than consumed by the landowners.


Q1] what type of food do you eat?

Q2] Can we have samples?

Q3] How often in a day do you eat?

Q4] What kind of work do you do?

Q5] How many hours a day do you work for?

Q6] Do you get your food from the market or is it grown in your farm?

  • Weigh the given food item, in this case potato, and record the initial mass
  • Set up the apparatus like in the diagram below.
  • Heat the potato for 1 minute, recording the temperature of the water in the test tube every 5 seconds. Ensure that the potato does not burn out completely.
  • Repeat the above steps with all the given food items.


Mass of Bajra- 2.65 grams

Mass of water 7.12 grams

Final Mass of Bajra – 2.33 grams

Therefore, MC Δt = 7.12 12.5 4.2 J = 373.8

373.8/4.2 = 89 calories


Initial Mass – 3.8 grams

Mass of water – 3.2 grams

Final Mass of Potato – 2.69 grams

Therefore, MCΔT =2.69 x 4.2 x 11.9 = 134.446/4.2

= 31.90 cal

Egg Plant:

Initial mass – 11.19

Mass of water – 5.06

Final mass of eggplant – 7.65

Therefore, mCΔT = 5.06 x 4.2 x 5.7 = 121/4.2 = 28.8

= 28.8 cal

conclusion and evaluation
Conclusion and Evaluation

According to our above results, the following is the ranking order for calories from maximum to least – 1) Bajra 2) Potato 3) Egg plant.

This shows us that people eating Bajra obtain more energy. This energy content is directly related to the amount of hydrocarbons present in these various food products because it is these chemicals which get burned to release the heat energy raising the temperature of the water. This means that Bajra is the most energy efficient food.

However, these values when compared to the literature values were very different from the ones that we obtained. For the potato and the Bajra and potato, the lab values are less than the literature values , this is because in the lab while the experiment was being conducted, a calorimeter was not available to us and furthermore there was no insulating material that could be used to prevent heat loss. Thus because of the very large heat loss taking place to the surroundings, we have observed theses results. On the other hand, the value for the egg plant is a little higher than the literature values observed and this may have been due to the heat energy from the Bunsen burner reaching the water and heating it as well, in addition to the heat energy of burning the egg plant.

Aim: We examined the fuels being used for many purposes in the running of the household (mainly cooking) to see how energy efficient they are. Simultaneously, we examined alternative options available on the market, and analyzed whether the alternatives were more effective fuels than the actual fuels being used.

Hypothesis: From the free availability of cow dung and the prior knowledge that cow dung was less polluting than the other fuels used in the village, we felt that cow dung would be the best fuel for the villagers to use. Besides being environmentally friendly, cow dung has a high calorific value, i.e., it releases large amounts of energy when burnt.


Q1] What fuels are used in this household?

Q2] What fuels are available in the market?

Q3] What is the cost of the fuel used and the other possible fuels that can be used?

Q4] What activities are the fuels used for?

Q5] Which fuel according to you is the best?


Place the spirit lamp without its lid in the centre of the top pan balance and note down its mass. Fill the spirit lamp with kerosene and note down the mass of the spirit lamp now, thereby deducing the mass of kerosene used in the experiment. Place an empty glass beaker on the top pan balance and note down its mass. Fill the glass beaker with 100 ml of water, which will be measured using a measuring cylinder Note down the mass of the beaker now, thereby deducing the mass of 100 ml of water used in experiment

Place the beaker on the wire gauze on a tripod stand. Under the stand, upturn another beaker and place the spirit lamp on it.

Place the bulb of a digital thermometer in the water and note down the initial temperature of water. Light the spirit lamp now, and subsequently record the temperature of water every 30 seconds for a time period of 4 minutes. The temperature at the end of 4 minutes will be termed as the ‘final temperature’. After 4 minutes, note down the mass of the spirit lamp, thereby deducing the mass of kerosene used in the experiment. The same above method was conducted using cow dung and wood.



Mass of beaker: 99.66g

Mass of beaker + water: 198.86g

Mass of kerosene used: 2.55g

Therefore Energy Output = 2.712 kJ/g


Mass of beaker: 99.57g

Mass of beaker + water: 198.65g

Mass of wood used: 5.28g

Therefore Energy Output = 0.413 kJ/g


Mass of beaker: 100.39g

Mass of beaker + water: 198.83g

Mass of gobar used: 3.01 g

Therefore Energy Output = 2.060 kJ/g

conclusion and evaluation1
Conclusion and Evaluation

The energy released by kerosene was found to be 2.7 12 kJ/g, the energy released by wood was found to be 0.413 kJ/g and the energy released by gobar (cow dung) was 2.060 kJ/g. From this, we can see that the values for kerosene and gobar were significantly higher than that of wood. Therefore, come to the conclusion that kerosene releases the most energy per gram, followed by gobar and then wood. These results were obtained because kerosene is highly inflammable and is a hydrocarbon that is easily combustible, whereas wood and cow dung are not as inflammable and hence do not release as much heat. However, kerosene when burnt burns very strongly and releases a huge amount of smoke as well as soot, which is harmful to both, the environment and the human body. Moreover, taking the economic costs into consideration, we see that Kerosene costs Rs.11 per litre, whereas cow dung and wood are freely available, since a large percentage of the population owns cows due to involvement in agricultural activities. Since gobar gives off quite a large amount of energy, is freely available, and does not pollute the environment as significantly as kerosene, we come to the conclusion that gobar is the best fuel from those given.

error analysis
Error Analysis
  • During the whole experiment there was a large amount of heat lost to the environment through conduction, convection.
  • During the kerosene was burning a lot of soot was collected on the beaker.
  • While burning the cow dung, kerosene was required for it to continue burning, hence some of the heat was from the burning of the kerosene and not all of the cow dung was burnt.
  • The wind velocity was not constant during the whole experiment, this prevented the flame from heating the water evenly, hence all the heat may not have been transferred.
  • After the water was heated for the required time the kerosene continued burning for sometime before the flame was extinguished, this could have led to the loss of kerosene which was not used to heat the water and would have affected the reading.
Aim: To investigate experimentally and find what would be the best building material for the houses in the villages in Jamnagar, in order to keep them cool and hence conserve energy which is otherwise spent on keeping the temperature in the houses lower.

Hypothesis: Out of the different materials most commonly used by the villagers in Jamnagar to build their houses that is clay, bricks, and bricks coated with cow dung, bricks coated with cow dung followed by clay and bricks will be the best in order to maintain a cooler environment within the house. This is because the cow dung bricks will have a higher specific heat capacity and hence for a given amount of heat, it would raise the temperature of the house by only a minimal amount.


Q1] What materials do you use to build your houses?

Q2] Can we have samples?

Q3] What materials are available in the market that you can use?

Q4] Is cow dung used in plastering the walls?

Q5] How much did it cost you to build the house?

  • Three pieces of the respective materials are taken and weighed with the help of a weighing scale and the masses are recorded.
  • The initial temperature of each of the three materials are taken, and they are then put into an oven pre-heated to 50°C
  • The three materials are subjected to the same amount of heat for a period of 15 minutes.
  • The materials are then taken out from the oven and their temperatures are then recorded.
  • The materials are allowed to cool and their temperatures are recorded again after 5 minutes and 10 minutes respectively.
Hence, we can see that the difference between the temperatures of the surroundings and inside is most for the house built with bricks and cow dung, followed by clay and then only bricks. Hence, it can be inferred that the house built with bricks covered with cow dung, will be the coolest.
conclusion and evaluation2
Conclusion and Evaluation

We see that after the materials are subjected to the same amount of heat, they show different rises in temperature, with the rise in temperature for the bricks with cow dung being the least, followed by clay and then bricks. This means that the specific heat capacity of bricks with cow dung is very high and hence for a lot of heat energy supplied it shows only a small rise in temperature. This makes it one of the best materials to be use for house building as on a hot day, it will absorb the heat energy without allowing a large increase in temperature, and in doing so keeps the house cooler. Clay which is the second best heat absorber, would be a good choice for the building of roofs, as when placed in a slanting manner, it traps moisture which absorbs heat, further helping in keeping the house cool. Thus, our readings show that bricks plastered with cow dung should be used for the walls of the houses and the roofs should be made by the clay tiles

energy saved
Energy Saved

We have seen experimentally as well as through practical readings that the temperature in the house built with bricks and cow dung is cooler and the difference between the surroundings and the house was 5.3 °C. Assuming that in the lack of these cooling conditions materials, energy will have to be spent to keep the house cool. Assuming that this cooling is provided by 1 fan, used for around 16 hours a day, we can calculate approximately how much energy is spent on these. With the information that there are around 700 farmers in the village, the total utilization would be 11,200 hours.

Using the information that a normal ceiling fan working at the highest speed uses 85 watts, we can see that an approximate of 950 kWh of energy can be saved per day.

error analysis1
Error Analysis
  • The oven was set to a pre-heated temperature. The actual temperature inside the oven could have been different from the one that was selected on the temperature knob.
  • The digital thermometer had a slight delay, while reading the temperature and this could have been resulted in a lot of error as the materials were cooling down really fast.
  • All the materials were not put inside the oven together and were not taken out together and this could have resulted in the heat given to the materials vary a little.
  • The brick was not covered with the cow dung completely and thus the effect due to this might not have been entirely accurate.
final conclusion
Final Conclusion
  • According to the experiments conducted by us, we concluded that:
  • The best fuel to be used is gobar (cow dung).
  • The best material to build the wall should made of brick plastered with cow dung and the roof of clay tiles.
  • The best food for laborers is a combination of bajra rotis and potato.
thank you
! Thank You !

Sagar Rupani Abhijeet Kaji Manasi Shah Isha Ambani Nishita Nigam Ishani Shukla Shriyansh Maheshwari Shireen Qureishi Aditya Mehta Prajay Patel