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Lecture #5: Sleep & Dreams

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  1. Lecture #5: Sleep & Dreams Music: “Dreams” Fleetwood Mac “Sleep Tonight” Faders

  2. Lecture #5: Agenda • 1.Structure of Consciousness • 2. Everyday Changes in Consciousness: • a) Circadian Rhythms • b) The Sleep Cycle • c) Content of Dreams • d) Theories of Dreams • e) Sleep Deprivation • 3. Applications: • a) Tips for sleep success • b) Self-Guide to Dream Interpretation • 4. Movie: “Curing Insomnia” • ABC news (8 min.)

  3. Structure of Consciousness a) Conscious awareness: Awareness of yourself (thoughts, feelings) and your environment Selective, slow; Tip of the iceberg

  4. 2. Everyday Changes in Consciousness • a) Circadian Rhythms • Biological clock governing cycles in bodily functions: • wakefulness, metabolism, body temp. hormone secretion, • p. 184

  5. 2. Everyday Changes in Consciousness • a) Circadian Rhythms (cont’d) • Clock adjusted by light • Receptors in the retina send input to hypothalamus • Small structure of the hypothalamus sends signals to pineal gland • Leads to the secretion of melatonin • Jet Lag: • Interferes with your biological clock • Flying West: phase-delay shifts/ much easier • Flying East: phase-advance shifts/ harder

  6. 2. b) The Sleep Cycle • 5 Stages: • Stage 1: • Light sleep 1-7 min. (theta waves) • Hypnic Jerks • Stage 2: • 10-25 min. (sleep spindles) • May involve some dreaming • Stages 3 & 4: • 30 min. slow-wave sleep (delta waves) • Longer in the first part of the night • When sleepwalking and night terrors occur • Usually within the first 2 hours of sleep • Stage 5: REM sleep (beta waves) • Rapid eye movements & dreaming • Gets progressively longer in later part of the night

  7. Fig. 5.5 & 5.11 in text

  8. 2. b) The sleep cycle (p. 196)

  9. 2. b) Stage 5: REM Sleep (cont’d) • REM= Rapid Eye Movement • When most dreams occur • About 20% of sleep time • Paradoxical: • Heart rate and arousal increase • Brain activity resembles alert state • Major muscle groups inhibited • See Application section for “lucid dreaming”

  10. 2. c) Content of Dreams • Typical Dreams of Canadian University Students (p. 198) • Being chased or pursued, not injured (90%) • Sexual experiences • Falling • School, teachers, studying • Arriving too late • Being on the verge of falling • A person now alive as dead • Trying repeatedly to do something • Flying or soaring through the air • Vividly sensing a presence • Failing an examination • Physically attacked • Being frozen with fright (50%) • Inappropriately dressed • Seeing self as dead

  11. 2. d) Theories of Dreams • Freud • “Dreams are the royal road to the unconscious” • Wish Fulfillment Theory: • Dreams express unconscious motives and wishes • Manifest & latent content • Criticisms

  12. 2. d) Theories of Dreams (cont’d) • Problem-solving View: • Dreams reflect an attempt to solve problems in waking-life • Activation-Synthesis Model: • Biological view • Dreams are the by-product of random neural firing from subcortical structures in the brain.

  13. Fig. 5.13, p. 200

  14. 2. e) Sleep deprivation: • Adults should get 7-9 hours • Children 5-12 years: 9-11 hours • Adolescents 11-17 years: 8.5-9.5 hours • Chronic sleep disturbances: • Associated with a spectrum of medical conditions • Obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure stroke, cardiovascular disease, depression, excessive drinking • Immunity to disease reduced • Inflammation in body increased • Impaired concentration and cognitive performance • Emotional centers of the brain more reactive: • Irritability/mood problems • Misperceptions during monotonous tasks • ‘Zoning out’ and industrial/medical accidents

  15. 2. e) Sleep deprivation (cont’d): • Why we need sleep: • 1) To maintain a healthy brain: • Repair damaged cells • Replenish energy stores • Grow new neurons • 2) To consolidate memory & learn • 3) To maintain psychological health • Help regulating mood/ handling stress/ and making decisions!

  16. 3. Application: a) Tips for Sleep Success • 1) Develop a consistent bedtime routine • Principles of conditioning • Train your body to know what to expect • 2) To develop a routine: • Go to bed at the same time each night • But don’t stay awake in bed for more than 20 minutes • Wake up at the same time • 3) To change current routine: • Make small incremental changes (e.g. by 15 minutes) • 4) Avoid caffeine after 2 p.m. • 5) Schedule “worry time” for another period of the day

  17. 3. b) Self-Guide to Dream Interpretation • For next week: • 1) Write your dream in the present tense • 2) Underline dream elements • 3) Provide more description of the dream elements • 4) Associate to dream elements • 5) Link to waking life • 6) Next week: Interpreting your dream • 7) & Making your dream work for you!

  18. 4. Movie:“Curing Insomnia” ABC news (8 min.) & Sleep well!