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Gareth Lim Lead, EMS Engineering. West-wide System Model (WSM): Building and Maintaining the WSM Model August 22 nd , 2012. WECC Balancing Areas Footprint. West-wide System Model (WSM). WECC WSM:

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Gareth lim lead ems engineering

Gareth LimLead, EMS Engineering

West-wide System Model (WSM): Building and Maintaining the WSM Model

August 22nd, 2012

West wide system model wsm
West-wide System Model (WSM)


    • Is an operational model used by the WECC Reliability Coordination offices to provide situational awareness and real-time supervision of the entire Western Interconnection

    • Consist of a Full Node-Breaker model, depicting breaker configuration details (e.g. ring-bus, breaker-and-half, main-bus-aux-bus, double-breaker configurations .. etc)

    • Is integrated with real-time telemetry (via ICCP) providing situational awareness of the flows and loading of the transmission system

West wide system model wsm1
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • WECC WSM is a product of the three existing RCO models (RDRC, CMRC, and PNSC)

    • CIM XML formatted Models (RDRC & CMRC) & Areva EMS Netmom (PNSC) were merged

    • Merged Model required clean-up: removal of duplicate lines & substations, standardization of basic modeling methodology & naming conventions

    • Result: West-wide System Model (WSM) Areva EMS Netmom

PNSC (Areva)


RDRC(GE Harris)

West wide system model wsm2
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • West-wide System (WSM) Network Model is supported by the following additional models / databases, used to support the Reliability Coordinator Real-Time Applications:

    • Scada Model

    • ICCP Model

    • Alarm Model

    • Contingency Definitions Model

    • Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) Model

West wide system model wsm3
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Network Model:

    • 12,000+ Busses Model (dynamic)

      • 7,600+ Busses Above 100kV

    • 6,900+ Substations

    • 11,000+ Transmission Lines

    • 5,100+ Transformers

    • 3,000+ Generating Units

  • WSM Model is updated every 4 – 6 weeks (or as needed to address critical model issues)

West wide system model wsm4
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Real-Time Telemetered Data

    • 98000+ Real-Time Telemetry (ICCP)

      • 47,000 Analog Measurements

      • 51,000 Status Measurements

    • Measurement Observability

Redundancy Ratio = (No. of Analog Measurements) / (No. of State Variables to be Solved for)

West wide system model wsm5
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Model Build Process:

    • Transmission Owners / Balancing Authorities submit Model Data 30-days in advance of transmission & generation changes (equipment parameters, substation breaker one-lines, estimated in-service dates)

    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers update the WSM Network Model with the associated modeling changes

    • WECC RC Modeling & Study Engineers create / update the other supporting EMS models / databases – i.e. Scada model, ICCP model, Alarm model, Contingency Definitions model, RAS model

    • WECC RC Applications & Study Engineers validate the new EMS model release in the Testing environment

    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers update the one-line displays

    • New EMS model release is deployed

West wide system model wsm6
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Model Data Submission Method:

    • Incremental Model Submission

      • Individual Substation breaker one-line diagram

      • Modeling Parameters in emails, spreadsheets

    • Full Model Submission

      • System / Overview Switching One-lines

      • Alstom Netmom database

      • Individual Entities’ PSLF cases

      • WECC Planning Basecase

      • Modeling Parameters in spreadsheets, official documents(e.g. FAC-009 Facility Equipment Ratings)

West wide system model wsm7
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Model Data Submission Method:

    • Submission Method:

      • E-mail submission via the WSMModelUpdates WECC distribution list (

      • Secure Email Message / Inbox

      • WECC FTP site

    • Submitter:

      • Operations Personnel / EMS Personnel / Planning Personnel – Dependent on each entities’ policies and procedures

Wsm model update process1
WSM Model Update Process

  • Modeling in E-terrasource

  • Validating & Exporting Basecase Model + Projects

    • To ensure no basic modeling errors were made

  • Running Basecase Powerflow Solution

    • To ensure no ‘major’ topological error or incorrect modeling parameters were made – causing powerflow divergence / abnormal voltage solutions

  • Map & Remap Real-Time ICCP measurements

Wsm model update process2
WSM Model Update Process

  • Create the Scada, ICCP & Alarm Models

    • To provide measurement observability for alarming & network applications monitoring

  • Running State Estimator Solutions

    • To ensure model is consistent with the available set of mapped measurements

    • To tune the State Estimator solution parameters with the updated model topology & measurement set

Wsm model update process3
WSM Model Update Process

  • Add & Update Contingency & Remedial Action Schemes (RAS) Definitions

    • To ensure contingency definitions & RAS definitions are consistent with the updated model topology

  • Running Contingency Analysis Solution

    • To ensure no topological error or contingency definition error causing unsolved / invalid contingency solutions

  • Update Substation & Overview one-line displays

    • To ensure proper visualization of the updated transmission system topology

Modeling in e terrasource
Modeling in E-terrasource

  • Model Update Process:

    • WECC RC Modeling Engineers use the Alstom E-terrasource modeling tool to build

    • Each modeler works in their own independent workspaces

      • Allows for parallel modeling - can have different models & projects loaded

      • Avoids the issue of shared resources

      • Avoids the risk of “one-corrupts-all”

      • Avoids the need for close-coordination of work (e.g. when performing validation, model export)

    • Each modeler begins with the latest Model Authority Set – MAS (most recent model “basecase”) to create their projects

    • Model Integrator integrates the projects together, validates, and create a new MAS

Modeling in e terrasource1
Modeling in E-terrasource

Network ParameterData

Modeling in e terrasource2
Modeling in E-terrasource

Node ConnectivityData

Node 900C

Node 900D

Modeling in e terrasource3
Modeling in E-terrasource

Graphical Modeler

Map remap real time iccp meas
Map & Remap Real-Time ICCP Meas

  • ICCP MappingUpdate Process:

** Actual ICCP Object IDs have been ‘masked’ due to confidentiality of ICCP Object IDs

Add update contingency definitions
Add & Update Contingency Definitions

  • Contingency Update Process:

    • Breaker-to-Breaker Contingencies

    • Lines: Greater 100 kV (excluding radial lines)

    • Transformer: Low-side greater than 90kV

    • Units: MW Capacity greater than 50 MW

Update substation overview one lines
Update Substation & Overview one-lines

  • WSM Model – Cholla Substation One-line 500kV

Update substation overview one lines1
Update Substation & Overview one-lines

  • WSM Model – Cholla substation on APS Overview

Model testing
Model Testing

  • State Estimator Testing

  • Contingency Analysis Testing

  • Alarm Testing

  • Display Verifications

  • ICCP Data Verifications

West wide system model wsm8
West-wide System Model (WSM)

  • Model Export Formats:

    • PTI Raw File Format

      • Mapping done via Alstom Translation Table Mapping, manually maintained by WECC RC Modeling Staff

    • Alstom Netmom Savecase

    • CIM version 12

    • Powerworld CSV File Format

      ** WSM is available to signatories of the WSM License Agreement or the Universal NDA

Continuous model validation
Continuous Model Validation

  • Running state estimation once every minute results in continuous model validation

  • WECC RC is enhancing tools to better identify topology errors, model errors, and measurement errors that contribute to incorrect state solutions

  • WECC RC has 24x7 monitoring support of the State Estimator solution quality

Reconciliation of models wsm model wecc planning basecase bcs model

Reconciliation of Models:WSM Model & WECC Planning Basecase (BCS) Model

Wsm model vs wecc basecase
WSM Model vs. WECC Basecase

  • WSM Model

    • Real-Time Operational Model used by the WECC RC

    • Contains Real-Time Telemetry, and Best Estimate of Current State of the System – Energy Usage, Generation Outputs, Transmission Loading, .. etc.

    • Updated by WECC RC Modeling Staff

  • WECC Basecase (BCS)

    • Planning Model used by the Planning Community

    • Contains Generation Dynamic Data

    • Updated by WECC Planning Community

Reconciliation potential challenges
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges

  • Differences between WSM and WECC BCS

    • Differences in Modeling Granularity

      • WSM: 12030 Busses, BCS: 18012 Busses

      • 9774 of 18021 buses in WECC BCS (2012) is not matched in WSM model

      • Largely attributed to lower kV (69kV & 46kV) systems not modeled in WSM model

    • Differences in Modeling Time Horizon

      • WSM models current, and near future, WECC BCS models seasonal models, including future anticipated projects

    • Differences in Area Modeling

      • WSM model is based (for the most part) on Balancing Area footprints, BCS is based on Regional footprints (e.g. Northwest Region)

Reconciliation potential challenges1
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges

  • Differences between WSM and WECC Basecase

    • Differences in Substation / Bus Topology Details

      • WSM model contains Full Node Breaker Detail vs. BCS contains Bus-Branch Representation

      • BCS using Jumpers to represent bus tie breakers

      • WSM model bus-branch equivalent is dynamic, depending on breaker switching in the case created

      • WSM model explicitly models each series capacitors as a separate line segment

      • WSM model contains zero-impedance branches to appropriately model metering locations


        “Transformer Balancing Authority Ties”

        “Bus-Tie Balancing Authority Ties”

Reconciliation potential challenges2
Reconciliation: Potential Challenges

  • Differences between WSM and WECC Basecase

    • Differences in Generation Modeling

      • Inclusion / Exclusion of Generator Step-up Transformer

      • Inclusion / Exclusion of Station Service / Auxiliary Load

        i.e. Net Generation vs Gross Generation Modeling

      • Aggregation of multiple generating units at a bus / substation

        e.g. Wind Turbines, High-Pressure-Low-Pressure Turbines

Reconciliation example difference
Reconciliation: Example Difference

  • Planning Basecase – Cholla 500kV (1-bus)

Reconciliation example difference1
Reconciliation: Example Difference

  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)

Reconciliation example difference2
Reconciliation: Example Difference

  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)

Reconciliation example difference3
Reconciliation: Example Difference

  • WSM Model – Cholla 500kV (4-busses)

Gareth lim lead ems engineering

Gareth Lim

Lead, EMS Engineering