Chapter 15 Temperature, Heat & Thermal Expansion

# Chapter 15 Temperature, Heat & Thermal Expansion

## Chapter 15 Temperature, Heat & Thermal Expansion

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1. Part III: Heat Chapter 15Temperature, Heat & Thermal Expansion Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

2. Temperature Temperature of an object indicates average internal energy (due to molecular motion) of the object. Temperature Scales Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

3. Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen gas becomes a liquid at -320 ºF, which is still over 130 ºF warmer than absolute zero. Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

4. Total versus Average The total amount of money in this room is probably around \$1000. The average amount of money per person is probably around \$20. Temperature of an object depends on the average amount of energy per molecule, not the total. Bucket of warm water can have more internal energy than cup of hot water. 80 °F Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU 100 °F

5. Internal Energy Internal energy of an object depends on: • Temperature • Mass • Material Iron 1 kg 1000 grams Water Iron 1 kg 1 gram Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

6. Money and Happiness Some people need a lot of money to make them happy. Some don’t. Some materials, such as water, need a lot of energy to raise their temperature. Some materials, such as iron, need little energy to raise their temperature. Nicole Richie & Paris Hilton Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU MAHATMA GANDHI

7. Increasing Internal Energy Can increase internal energy (and temperature) by tapping energy sources. Electric energy heats burner Chemical energy released in fire Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

8. Work and Heat May increase internal energy by exerting a force to do mechanical work. Rub hands together for warmth Strike an iron surface with great force and red-hot sparks are created Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

9. Demo: Work and Heat Increase internal energy (and thus temperature) by doing mechanical work on an object. Bottle of Mercury Temperature increases by a few degrees SHAKE Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

10. Specific Heat Capacity Filling and crust at same temperature yet mouth burned only by the filling. Specific heat capacity is the internal energy required to raise one gram of a material by one degree of temperature. Filling has high specific heat capacity Crust has low specific heat capacity Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

11. Demo: Sparklers Iron burns red-hot at a temperature of 5000 ºF Sparks from sparkler don’t burn skin because they have very little energy (small mass and low heat capacity). Walking on red-hot embers is safe for the same reason. Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

12. Demo: Moses Money Take a dollar bill, soak it in a 50/50 solution of isopropyl alcohol and water; set it on fire. High specific heat of water prevents the bill from burning. Heat produced by the burning alcohol only enough to warm the water. Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

13. Check Yourself Why does a piece of watermelon stay cool for a longer time than sandwiches do when both are removed from a cooler on a hot day? Why is it that the climate in the desert is so hot during the day yet so cold at night? Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

14. Demo: Boil Water in Paper Cup Because of high heat capacity of water, the large amount of heat added by the flame raises the temperature of the water until boiling. If the cup is filled with sand instead of water then it burns quickly. Cup with sand Cup with water Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

15. Thermal Expansion Due to increased molecular motion, most materials expand as temperature increases. Space allows for expansion Sidewalk buckles and cracks due to expansion on a hot summer day Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

16. Demo: Slowing Air Molecules Balloon returns to its original state Air molecules slow down and lose kinetic energy Cool balloon using liquid nitrogen Balloon slowly warms up, restoring energy Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

17. Demo: Expansion of a Ring Metal ball barely fits past the metal ring. Not surprising that heated ball won’t pass through cold ring. Will cold ball pass through heated (expanded) ring? Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

18. Demo: Bi-metallic Strip Different materials have different rates of expansion. STEEL Brass Brass expands more than steel when heated Thermostat COLD HOT Bi-metallic Spiral strip Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU

19. Demo: Heat, Cool, Break Glass expands when heated. If hot glass is cooled quickly, exterior cools before the interior. Exterior contracts faster than the interior, cracking the glass. GLASS Cracks form COOL (quickly) Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU HEAT

20. Demo: Freeze Solid Materials become brittle when frozen solid. Organic materials appear solid but cells contain large amounts of liquid water. Physics 1 (Garcia) SJSU