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Welcome. Agriculture in Bangladesh : Present position, Problems, Prospects and Policy. Presented by : C.Q.K Mustaq Ahmed Secretary Ministry of Agriculture Date: 01-03-2010. Outline . Bangladesh agriculture at a glance Characteristics

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agriculture in bangladesh present position problems prospects and policy


Agriculture in Bangladesh:Present position, Problems, Prospects and Policy

Presented by : C.Q.K Mustaq Ahmed Secretary

Ministry of Agriculture

Date: 01-03-2010


Bangladesh agriculture at a glance


Importance of agriculture

Some challenges of agriculture


Climate change and agriculture

Factors related to climate change impact

Consequences of climate change on agriculture

Adapting to climate change

Comprehensive approach to deal with the issues

Policy Supports


bangladesh agriculture at a glance
Bangladesh Agriculture at a Glance
  • Total farm holding: 1,47,16,000
  • Total area: 14.845 million hectares
  • Cultivable land: 8 million hectares
  • Current fallow land: 0.469m hectares
  • Annual Food Production: 31.9m MT
  • Annual Food demand : 31.9m MT
  • Self-sufficiency in food: 2012
  • Ensuring food security: 2017(a+a+n)
  • Middle Income Country: 2022
  • *(a+a+n=Availability, accessibility and nutrition)


34.2 million tons


  • Increasing productivity & reducing

yield gap:

- Additional inputs & Technological change

  • Adaptation
  • Networked & e-Agriculture
  • Post harvest Technology
  • Changing food habit

Self sufficiency in food


31.9 million ton


*Breakeven point

Strategy for achieving self-sufficiency in food

Food indicates only staple food

characteristics of bangladesh agriculture
Characteristics of Bangladesh Agriculture

Cropping intensity 179%

Irrigated land 56%

Surface water:21% groundwater:79%

Land-man ratio: .06 ha

Mainly subsistence farming

Inadequate agro-processing

Non-mechanized farming

Fragmented land/plots

Dependence largely on nature

importance of agriculture
Importance of agriculture

21% GDP

48% labor force

Source of raw materials as backward and forward linkage for agro based industries

Agriculture determines people’s lives and livelihood of this region

People living in rural areas 77%

Export value 12%

some challenges
Some challenges
  • Rapid shrinkage of agricultural land @1% p.a.
  • Population growth @1.48% p.a.
  • Climate change and variations
  • Rapid urbanization growth @12% p.a.
  • Agricultural research and education (manpower shortage, updating course curriculum)
  • Technology generation (needs expertise, time and money)
  • Technology dissemination (needs expertise,

time, logistics support)

  • Alternate livelihoods/rehabilitation program
  • Inadequate value addition /food processing
challenges continued
Challenges continued…

Climate change adaptation & mitigation

Developing stress tolerant varieties

Transferring updated information and technologies to the field

Attaining irrigation efficiency

Regaining soil fertility and natural ingredients

Research-extension-farmer-market linkage

Shortage of Agril labour at peak seasons

prospects of agriculture
Prospects of Agriculture:
  • Modern technological know-how is available for dissemination
  • Scope for expanding hybrid technology exists(10%)
  • Prospects for adoption of advanced technology in agriculture are bright
  • Potentials for proper utilization of hilly/coastal areas including agro-ecologically disadvantaged regions exist
  • Export potentials exist for high-value crops
  • Scope for crop diversification, intensification and value addition to agricultural produces
  • Agriculture sector has capacity to absorb labor force and to generate income
  • Scope for reducing yield gaps exists
why climate change matters for agriculture
Why Climate Change matters for agriculture?

Heavily depends on natural rainfall, weather & temperature, water level, soil condition etc.

Uncontrolled farming environment

Rice based agriculture greatly depends availability of fresh surface and ground water

Seasonal farming

Lack of stress tolerant varieties

Changed cropping pattern

types of climate change problems
Types of climate change problems

Sea Level Rise (SLR)


Riverbank erosion


Salinity intrusion

Loss of homestead and livelihoods

Pest infestation

Land scarcity

factors related to climate change
Factors related to climate change

Indiscriminate use of natural resources

Excessive and unplanned urbanization

Unplanned industrial growth

Imbalanced use of agricultural inputs and extreme farming

Population pressure

Effect of industrial pollution by developed countries

combating climate change impact
Combating Climate Change Impact


  • Stress (flood, drought, submergence, salinity, heat, cold..) tolerant varieties
  • Short duration crops
  • Innovative farming practices
  • Floating cultivation method
  • Crop diversification
  • Changing/shifting cropping pattern
  • Alternate wetting and drying irrigation methods


  • Coastal green belt
  • Embankment/Dam
  • Tidal River Management
  • Early warning and weather forecasting
  • Cyclone shelters
  • Crop insurance
collective efforts needed
Collective efforts needed

Political commitment

Educational Institutions

Civil society



Research organizations

Department of Agricultural Extension/Extension service providers

Global cooperation

recurrent natural calamities
Recurrent natural calamities

Cyclones 1970, 1991, 2007(Sidr), 2009(Ayla)

Floods 1988, 2000, 2004, 2007

Erratic rainfall (e.g. late rainfall Aug/’09)

Severe drought

Heat and cold waves

Northwestern storm

Pest infestation

Draw down/Declining Water Table

last two decades agricultural growth
Last two decades agricultural growth
  • Inputs based growth

(intensive use of HYV/Hybrid seeds, irrigation, fertilizer, pesticides, etc.)

  • Less mechanized farming
  • Insignificant methodological change of farming
  • Crop diversification
  • Combination of vertical & horizontal growth
  • Presently less scope of horizontal growth
policy support
Policy support
  • National Agriculture Policy[1999; 2009(draft)]
  • New Agricultural Extension Policy
  • National Food Policy
  • National Seed Policy
  • National IPM policy
  • Fertilizer Management (Amendment) Act,2009
  • The Pesticide Act, 2009
  • Rural Credit Policy (Farmers friendly)
  • Land Policy & National Land use policy
prsp agriculture and rural development
PRSP- Agriculture and Rural Development
  • PRSP places agriculture and rural development as key driver of pro-poor growth strategy.
  • Government’s policy is to create enabling environment and support transformation of subsistence agriculture to a more diversified agribusiness with increased participation of private sector.
  • Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), entitled “Unlocking the Potential –National Strategy for Accelerated Poverty Reduction” (2005), highlights the need for

- higher growth in rural areas, development of agriculture and rural non-farm economic activities as one of the four priority areas to accelerating pro-poor economic growth.

  • PRSP puts emphasis on achieving productivity and profitability gains, broad-based support to agriculture, diversification and commercialization of agricultural enterprises.
  • PRSP also stressed on agricultural research and technology generation, farmers’ demand-led extension services, energizing agricultural marketing and agro-processing, land use and women in agriculture.

The most important feature of PRSP is the formulation of precise and workable policy matrix, which identifies 22 crucially important strategic goals, fixes up targets against these goals, charts actions already taken, sets future policy agenda and priorities and delineates responsibilities for the concerned ministries.

government s recent interventions
Government’s recent interventions
  • Farmers database and Farmers Inputs Support Card to 1 Crore 82 Lakh farmers.
  • Increased subsidy on Agricultural Inputs (Fertilizer, diesel, electricity, seeds)
  • Farmer friendly agricultural credit policy
  • 1 Crore 82 Lakh farmers’ new bank accounts being opened
  • 100 Hr. free supplementary irrigation
  • Enhanced Agricultural rehab grants to victims of natural calamities
  • Support for accelerated mechanization of agriculture
  • Surface water irrigation

Agriculture is the determining factor for food security as well as pro-poor development of Bangladesh economy.

The Problems of agriculture are multifaceted. So the ways of addressing the challenges should be comprehensive, global and participatory for sustainable agricultural development.