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The Literature Review. Lecture 7. Organization of this lecture. The Literature Review : Purposes of the Literature Review The Literature Review Process Search Aids, Key Words, Reading, & Notes Writing the Literature Review Referencing.

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organization of this lecture
Organization of this lecture

The Literature Review:

  • Purposes of the Literature Review
  • The Literature Review Process
  • Search Aids, Key Words, Reading, & Notes
  • Writing the Literature Review
  • Referencing
slide3

Before we can create new knowledge, we must first know the current state of knowledge about our research subject.

  • Effective researchers will use knowledge and insights of others and draw on elements of prior research.
  • In the literature review, the task is to learn as much as you can from the efforts and work of others – which is published in the “scientific literature”.

(refer to Literature Review section in Appendices A,B, & C)

purposes of the literature review
Purposes of the Literature Review
  • The central purpose of the Literature Review is to provide the researcher (and the reader) with an understanding of literature about the proposed research.
  • This includes the strengths and weaknesses!
  • The research problem is the focus of the literature review
  • But the literature may be related to the research project in several ways – through the problem, the objectives, the conceptual framework, and methods and procedures.
slide5

Prior research that addressed a similar problem or had similar objectives is relevant – you should know how others approached their problem and objectives.

  • Likewise the approaches and procedures used by others can suggest what is likely to work for you.
  • Studies can be related through both similarities and differences – the differences are especially important in methods and procedures.
slide6

Specific purposes, functions and benefits of a literature review include:

  • Prevents duplication of what has already been done (Some duplication or confirmation of research is necessary, but excessive duplication is wasteful)
  • Help to identify new areas where research is needed (and how new research can contribute)
  • Provides ideas and direction for:
    • How to handle problems encountered
    • Techniques
    • Sources of data
    • Novel approaches for the research
slide7

Helps develop insights on design of your own study by showing what has (and has not) been previously successful

May reveal conceptual insights into the problem and/or suggest possible hypotheses for your own study

A formal (written) literature review may not be necessary for all studies (eg. Problem-solving research for industry – see Appendix A)

But research should never be undertaken without a literature review. To do so risks, unneeded duplication, repeating mistakes and inefficient research

the literature review process
The Literature Review Process
  • Not all literature should be included in the review – only “scientific literature”.
  • This is literature which has been through a peer review process. This includes professional journals, formal research reports, university-affiliated bulletins, reports and monographs.
  • Also includes similar publications by research foundations and international organizations.
  • This does not insure that these are infallible, or even correct – but they have been through independent checks of accuracy and correctness.
slide9

“Popular” publications should not be included eg. Newspapers, news magazines, or industry or popular publications.

  • Even well respected publications, such as the Wall Street Journal, or The Economist are not appropriate sources for a literature review.

(However, these sources may be useful to the researcher as background information during problem formulation)

  • The literature review is intended to provide an overview and summary of prior reliable knowledge.
the research library
The Research Library
  • A necessity for conducting research, is access to a research library.
  • This library will have the facilities, trained staff and access to specialized literature, necessary to carry out scientific research.
  • It must have the ability to locate and obtain all of the literature that you need.
  • Research libraries can access literature from other libraries – often in electronic form.
search aid
Search Aid
  • Standard search aids include indexes, abstracts, and bibliographies.
  • These search tools are located in the research library and many now are computerized.
  • But not all relevant materials are available electronically, so computer and hard copy searches are necessary.
  • Also, many indexing and abstract services lag behind current literature (as much as several years) so it is useful to check current issues of major journals for relevant literature.
  • Dissertation abstracts should not be overlooked.
key words
Key Words
  • These are individual words and phrases which describe the topic you are studying.
  • Selecting good key words is very important
    • if too limited, you may overlook relevant literature;
    • if too broad, you may spend time locating and reviewing literature with little relation to your topic.
    • The best advise is to start with broad key words, then narrow to a more confined list.
slide13

Defining key words may be difficult – there are no specific guidelines

  • Focus on key words and phrases which define the topic
  • This includes words relevant to the problem, objectives, conceptual framework and methods or procedures.
  • It may be helpful to review prior research that used analytical techniques or certain issues that you intend to study. These techniques or issues would be included in the key words.
reading
Reading
  • It is often useful to start reading with the most recent publications. This allows:
    • Focusing more quickly on current knowledge,
    • Recent research often includes references to relevant earlier research
    • First read the abstract or summary to determine relevance and whether to review the article.
    • As you read, keep in mind that the central purpose is to identify and describe the relevance of the study to your research
notes
Notes
  • Be sure you have a complete citation of each source.
  • Keep written notes – don’t rely on memory.
  • Be thorough and systematic in keeping notes; note problem, objectives, methods, findings and conclusions
  • Note questions, shortcomings or problems with the study.
  • Notes can be on note card, full sheets of paper, or directly in word processing files (which can use the “search” function).
writing the literature review
Writing the Literature Review
  • Literature reviews, like any part of a proposal, need organization.
  • It should not be a series of unconnected summaries of studies, but rather a synthesis of previous related literature.
  • Develop an outline of the literature review, before you start to write.
  • Start with an introduction section, and end with a short summary that pulls all the main points together.
slide17

Use subheadings to organize the literature review and direct the reader’s attention.

  • These are usually subject-matter headings, which logically group studies with a similar focus. (This is illustrated well in Appendix C).
  • The literature review should summarize, but not repeat information. Seek to analyze, compare and contrast the literature reviewed.
  • Direct quotations can be useful, but use sparingly. Be reluctant to reproduce graphs or tables.
slide18

Be sure to include the economic foundations literature related to your research. An overview of conceptual thinking, analytical procedures, and the progression of research can put your work in perspective.

  • It can be difficult to know when to summarize the published information and when to just refer to it. This primarily depends on the background of your audience.
  • Do not reference a source of an idea without actually having read it.

(Another person’s summary and interpretation may differ from your own)

referencing
Referencing
  • Referencing previous literature occurs throughout research proposal and research reports, but is used most in the literature review.
  • We reference other literature to:
    • Provide supporting (or contrary) evidence for the views we write about
    • Assign credit for an idea, concept or result
    • Add information and details on matters discussed
slide20

Giving credit for thoughts, ideas, efforts and contributions of others is an important ethical issue.

  • Plagiarism is the failure to give credit for an idea or research result to it’s originator.
  • Presenting someone else’s words or ideas as your own is not only wrong but can hurt your professional standing
  • By properly referencing and giving credit for other’s work, you show that are aware of the state of knowledge in your subject and are familiar with the work of leaders in the field.
slide21

The style used in referencing may vary with the type of publication, as well as your personal preference.

  • Footnotes (notes at the bottom of the page) or Endnotes (similar notes placed at the end of the paper) can be used, if allowed.
  • Most commonly used is parenthetical referencing, which provides the author’s last name, year of publication, and sometimes the page number. eg. (Ethridge, 2004, p.122)
  • The cited references then all appear in the Reference section at the end of the paper.
slide22

Another possible style is to use a number in parentheses eg. (4), with a numbered References list at the end of the paper.

  • Many different styles are used for the References section. It is best to refer to the style used by the agency or publication to which you are submitting the paper.

eg. Ethridge, Don. 2004. Research methodology in applied economics. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publ.

  • Finally, the referencing of internet sources is not fully resolved. Generally, include the full web address and date of access of the website.